REPORT ON THE WORK OF THE GOVERNMENT
Delivered at the First Session of the 14th National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China on March 5, 2023
Premier of the State Council
The term of this government is about to come to a close. On behalf of the State Council, I will now report to you on the work of the government for your deliberation and approval and also for comments from members of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC).
I.A Review of Our Work in 2022 and over the Past Five Years
2022年是党和国家历史上极为重要的一年。党的二十大胜利召开，描绘了全面建设 社会主义现代化国家的宏伟蓝图。面对风高浪急的国际环境和艰巨繁重的国内改革发展 稳定任务，以习近平同志为核心的党中央团结带领全国各族人民迎难而上，全面落实疫 情要防住、经济要稳住、发展要安全的要求，加大宏观调控力度，实现了经济平稳运行、 发展质量稳步提升、社会大局保持稳定，我国发展取得来之极为不易的新成就。
The year 2022 was a year of great importance in the history of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and our country. The Party successfully convened its 20th National Congress, during which it drew up an inspiring blueprint for building China into a modern socialist country in all respects. In the face of high winds and choppy waters in the international environment and challenging tasks in promoting reform, development, and stability at home, the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core brought together the Chinese people of all ethnic groups and led them in meeting difficulties head-on. We acted on the requirements of responding effectively to Covid-19, maintaining economic stability, and ensuring security in development, and intensified macro regulation. As a result, we stabilized the economy, steadily enhanced development quality, and maintained overall social stability, securing new and hard-won achievements in China’s development.
过去一年，我国经济发展遇到疫情等国内外多重超预期因素冲击。在党中央坚强领 导下，我们高效统筹疫情防控和经济社会发展，根据病毒变化和防疫形势，优化调整疫 情防控措施。面对经济新的下行压力，果断应对、及时调控，动用近年储备的政策工具， 靠前实施既定政策举措，坚定不移推进供给侧结构性改革，出台实施稳经济一揽子政策 和接续措施，部署稳住经济大盘工作，加强对地方落实政策的督导服务，支持各地挖掘 政策潜力，支持经济大省勇挑大梁，突出稳增长稳就业稳物价，推动经济企稳回升。全 年国内生产总值增长3％，城镇新增就业1206万人，年末城镇调查失业率降到5.5％，居 民消费价格上涨2％。货物进出口总额增长7.7％。财政赤字率控制在2.8％，中央财政 收支符合预算、支出略有结余。国际收支保持平衡，人民币汇率在全球主要货币中表现 相对稳健.粮食产量1.37万亿斤，增产74亿斤。生态环境质量持续改善。在攻坚克难中 稳住了经济大盘，在复杂多变的环境中基本完成全年发展主要目标任务，我国经济展现 出坚强韧性。
Over the past year, China’s economy was impacted by Covid-19 and other domestic and international factors beyond our expectations. However, under the strong leadership of the Party Central Committee, we carried out Covid-19 response and pursued economic and social development in an effective and well-coordinated way; and we improved and adjusted response measures in view of virus variations and the evolving dynamics of epidemic prevention and control. Confronted with new downward pressure on the economy, we acted decisively and made timely adjustments. We made use of the policy tools kept in reserve over recent years, proactively adopted predetermined policies, and remained firm in advancing supply-side structural reform. We unveiled and implemented a full range of policies and follow-up measures to stabilize the economy. We formulated plans for the task of ensuring overall economic stability. We stepped up supervision and support to ensure policy implementation by local governments and assisted them in fully leveraging the potential of policies, and supported major economically developed provinces in shouldering greater responsibility. We gave priority to ensuring stable growth, employment, and prices, thus bringing about a steady economic recovery. Gross domestic product (GDP) of the year grew by 3 percent. A total of 12.06 million urban jobs were added, with the year-end surveyed urban unemployment rate falling to 5.5 percent. The consumer price index (CPI) rose by 2 percent. The total volume of trade in goods rose by 7.7 percent. The deficit-to-GDP ratio was kept at 2.8 percent, and central government revenue and expenditure were in line with budget projections, with expenditure slightly lower than the budgeted figure. A basic equilibrium was maintained in the balance of payments, and the RMB exchange rate remained stable relative to other major global currencies. Grain output reached 685 million metric tons, an increase of 3.7 million metric tons. The environment continued to improve.Overcoming great difficulties and challenges, we succeeded in maintaining overall stable economic performance. Amid a complex and fluid environment, we were able to generally accomplish the main targets and tasks for the year. Such achievements are a testament to the tremendous resilience of China’s economy.
针对企业生产经营困难加剧，加大纾困支持力度。受疫情等因素冲击，不少企业和 个体工商户遇到特殊困难。全年增值税留抵退税超过2.4万亿元，新增减税降费超过1万 亿元，缓税缓费7500多亿元。为有力支持减税降费政策落实，中央对地方转移支付大幅 增加。引导金融机构增加信贷投放，降低融资成本，新发放企业贷款平均利率降至有统 计以来最低水平，对普惠小微贷款阶段性减息。用改革办法激发市场活力。量大面广的 中小微企业和个体工商户普遍受益。
We stepped up relief support to enterprises facing growing difficulties in operation and production. Impacted by Covid-19 and other factors, many enterprises and self-employed individuals experienced acute distress. Last year, value-added tax (VAT) credit refunds exceeded 2.4 trillion yuan, newly implemented tax and fee cuts amounted to more than 1 trillion yuan, and postponements were introduced for tax and fee payments of over 750 billion yuan. To ensure implementation of tax and fee reduction policies, the central government significantly increased transfer payments to local governments. We provided guidance to financial institutions on increasing credit supply and lowering financing costs. Average interest rates on new enterprise loans fell to the lowest level on record, and time-limited cuts were made to interest rates on inclusive loans to micro and small businesses. We injected fresh vitality into the market through reform. Many micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) and self-employed individuals in various sectors have benefited as a result.
针对有效需求不足的突出矛盾，多措并举扩投资促消费稳外贸。去年终端消费直接 受到冲击，投资也受到影响。提前实施部分“十四五”规划重大工程项目，加快地方政 府专项债券发行使用，依法盘活用好专项债务结存限额，分两期投放政策性开发性金融 工具7400亿元，为重大项目建设补充资本金。运用专项再贷款、财政贴息等政策，支持 重点领域设备更新改造。采取联合办公、地方承诺等办法，提高项目审批效率。全年基 础设施、制造业投资分别增长9.4％、9.1％，带动固定资产投资增长5.1％，一定程度 弥补了消费收缩缺口。发展消费新业态新模式，采取减免车辆购置税等措施促进汽车消 费，新能源汽车销量增长93.4％，开展绿色智能家电、绿色建材下乡，社会消费品零售 总额保持基本稳定。出台金融支持措施，支持刚性和改善性住房需求，扎实推进保交楼 稳民生工作。帮助外贸企业解决原材料、用工、物流等难题，提升港口集疏运效率，及 时回应和解决外资企业关切，货物进出口好于预期，实际使用外资稳定增长。
To address lack of effective demand, we adopted a combination of measures to expand investment, stimulate consumption, and stabilize foreign trade. Consumer spending was hit hard last year, and investment also suffered. In response, we launched several major projects set out in the 14th Five-Year Plan ahead of schedule, expedited the processes of issuing and utilizing local government special-purpose bonds, made better use of carryover quotas for special-purpose bonds in accordance with the law, and issued development and policy-backed financial instruments in two batches totaling 740 billion yuan to replenish the capital for major projects. We used targeted re-lending, loan interest subsidies, and other policies to support key sectors in upgrading equipment. To speed up project screening, different government departments established joint offices and a commitment-based approval system was adopted for local governments.In 2022, investments in infrastructure and the manufacturing sector increased by 9.4 percent and 9.1 percent respectively, while fixed-asset investment increased by 5.1 percent. This has, to some degree, offset the contraction in consumption. We fostered new modes and new forms of consumer spending and adopted measures including reductions and exemptions on vehicle purchase tax to boost spending on automobiles. As a result, sales of new-energy vehicles surged by 93.4 percent. Initiatives were launched to stimulate spending on green and smart home appliances and green building materials in rural areas. Thanks to these efforts, we kept total retail sales of consumer products generally stable. We adopted financial measures to meet people’s demand for buying their first home or improving their housing situation and took concrete steps to ensure that overdue housing projects were completed and delivered to meet people’s basic living needs. We assisted foreign trade enterprises in tackling difficulties relating to raw materials, labor, and logistics, improved loading, unloading and transport efficiency in ports, and responded promptly to the concerns of foreign-funded enterprises and helped resolve their problems. The volume of trade in goods exceeded expectations, and utilized foreign investment increased steadily.
针对就业压力凸显，强化稳岗扩就业政策支持。去年城镇调查失业率一度明显攀升。财税、金融、投资等政策更加注重稳就业。对困难行业企业社保费实施缓缴，大幅提高 失业保险基金稳岗返还比例，增加稳岗扩岗补助。落实担保贷款、租金减免等创业支持 政策。突出做好高校毕业生就业工作，开展就业困难人员专项帮扶。在重点工程建设中 推广以工代赈。脱贫人口务工规模超过3200万人、实现稳中有增。就业形势总体保持稳 定。
In response to significant employment pressure, we boosted policy support to stabilize and increase employment. Last year, the surveyed urban unemployment rate saw a notable increase for some time. Therefore, we put a stronger emphasis on ensuring stable employment when implementing fiscal, tax, financial, and investment policies. We postponed the payment of social insurance premiums by enterprises in distressed sectors, significantly increased the proportion of unemployment insurance funds returned to enterprises to keep payrolls stable, and raised subsidies for stabilizing and increasing employment. To support business startups, we implemented policies on guaranteed loans and on reducing or waiving the rent for state-owned premises. We made college graduates employment a priority and provided targeted assistance to people who had difficulty finding employment. Work-relief programs in major projects were expanded. More than 32 million people were lifted out of poverty with new employment, maintaining a steady increase. Thanks to these efforts, overall employment remained stable.
针对全球通胀高企带来的影响，以粮食和能源为重点做好保供稳价。去年全球通胀 达到40多年来新高，国内价格稳定面临较大压力。有效应对洪涝、干旱等严重自然灾害， 不误农时抢抓粮食播种和收获，督促和协调农机通行，保障农事活动有序开展，分三批向种粮农民发放农资补贴，保障粮食丰收和重要农产品稳定供给。发挥煤炭主体能源作 用，增加煤炭先进产能，加大对发电供热企业支持力度，保障能源正常供应。在全球高 通胀的背景下，我国物价保持较低水平，尤为难得。
In the face of a global surge in inflation, we strived to ensure market supply and stable prices, particularly those of food and energy. Last year, global inflation rocketed to a 40-year high, exerting great pressure on domestic price stability. We responded effectively to major natural disasters such as floods and droughts. To see that no time was lost during the planting and harvest seasons, we worked to ensure unrestricted movement of agricultural machines on public roads and saw that farming was free from disruptions. We issued agricultural supply subsidies to grain growers in three installments. All this helped ensure good grain harvests and stable supplies of major agricultural products. We leveraged the role of coal as a major source of energy, increased advanced coal production capacity and stepped up support for power plants and heat-supply enterprises to ensure energy supplies. Despite high global inflation, we have kept overall prices at a comparatively low level, which is truly remarkable.
针对部分群众生活困难增多，强化基本民生保障。阶段性扩大低保等社会保障政策 覆盖面，将更多困难群体纳入保障范围。延续实施失业保险保障扩围政策，共向1000多 万失业人员发放失业保险待遇。向更多低收入群众发放价格补贴，约6700万人受益。免 除经济困难高校毕业生2022年国家助学贷款利息并允许延期还本。做好因疫因灾遇困群 众临时救助工作，切实兜住民生底线。
To assist people experiencing increased difficulties in their lives, we bolstered support to ensure their basic living needs. We took time-limited measures to expand the scope of subsistence allowances and other social security policies to cover more groups in difficulty. Continuing the policy on expanding unemployment insurance coverage, we provided unemployment benefits to over 10 million people in total. We also provided price subsidies for more people on low incomes, benefiting about 67 million in all. We waived interest payments on government-subsidized student loans to college graduates with financial difficulties and granted extensions on the principal repayments for these loans. We provided emergency assistance to people hit hard by the epidemic or natural disasters, thus ensuring that the basic living needs of all our people were met.
与此同时，我们全面落实中央经济工作会议部署，按照十三届全国人大五次会议批 准的政府工作报告安排，统筹推进经济社会各领域工作。经过艰苦努力，当前消费需求、 市场流通、工业生产、企业预期等明显向好，经济增长正在企稳向上，我国经济有巨大 潜力和发展动力。
We also fully implemented the plans set forth at the Central Conference on Economic Work and in the Report on the Work of the Government approved at the Fifth Session of the 13th National People’s Congress (NPC), and made coordinated advances in all fields of economic and social development. Thanks to our dedicated work, consumer demand, market distribution, industrial production, and business expectations have all markedly improved. China’s economy is staging a steady recovery and demonstrating vast potential and momentum for further growth.
过去五年极不寻常、极不平凡。在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下，我们 经受了世界变局加快演变、新冠疫情冲击、国内经济下行等多重考验，如期打赢脱贫攻 坚战，如期全面建成小康社会，实现第一个百年奋斗目标，开启向第二个百年奋斗目标 进军新征程。各地区各部门坚持以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导，深刻领 悟“两个确立”的决定性意义，增强“四个意识”、坚定“四个自信”、做到“两个维 护”，全面贯彻党的十九大和十九届历次全会精神，深入贯彻党的二十大精神，坚持稳 中求进工作总基调，完整、准确、全面贯彻新发展理念，构建新发展格局，推动高质量 发展，统筹发展和安全，我国经济社会发展取得举世瞩目的重大成就。
The past five years have been truly momentous and remarkable. Under the strong leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, we have met numerous tests, including accelerated changes on the international landscape, the Covid-19 pandemic, and a domestic economic slowdown. We both won the critical battle against poverty and finished building a moderately prosperous society in all respects as scheduled, thus attaining the First Centenary Goal and embarking on a new journey to realize the Second Centenary Goal.All localities and government departments followed the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era; gained a deep understanding of the decisive significance of establishing Comrade Xi Jinping’s core position on the Party Central Committee and in the Party as a whole and establishing the guiding role of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era; enhanced their consciousness of the need to maintain political integrity, think in big-picture terms, follow the leadership core, and keep in alignment with the central Party leadership; stayed confident in the path, theory, system, and culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics; upheld Comrade Xi Jinping’s core position on the Party Central Committee and in the Party as a whole and upheld the Central Committee’s authority and its centralized, unified leadership; and fully acted on the guiding principles from the 19th CPC National Congress and the plenary sessions of the 19th Party Central Committee and thoroughly implemented the guiding principles from the Party’s 20th National Congress. We stayed true to the general principle of pursuing progress while ensuring stability. We fully and faithfully applied the new development philosophy on all fronts, worked to create a new pattern of development, promoted high-quality development, and ensured both development and security. As a result, we have made major achievements in economic and social development, which garnered recognition around the world.
——经济发展再上新台阶。国内生产总值增加到121万亿元，五年年均增长5.2％， 十年增加近70万亿元、年均增长6.2％，在高基数基础上实现了中高速增长、迈向高质 量发展。财政收入增加到20.4万亿元。粮食产量连年稳定在1.3万亿斤以上。工业增加值突破40万亿元。城镇新增就业年均1270多万人。外汇储备稳定在3万亿美元以上。我 国经济实力明显提升。
–Economic strength reached new heights. China’s GDP increased to 121 trillion yuan, registering an annual growth rate of 5.2 percent over the past five years. Over the past decade, GDP has increased by almost 70 trillion yuan at an annual rate of 6.2 percent. We have achieved a medium-high rate of economic growth given our large economic aggregate and transitioned to high-quality development. Government revenue increased to 20.4 trillion yuan. Annual grain output remained steady at over 650 million metric tons for several consecutive years. The total value-added of industry exceeded the 40-trillion-yuan mark, and average yearly urban jobs growth hit more than 12.7 million. Foreign exchange reserves remained stable at over US$3 trillion. These figures show that China’s economic strength has increased significantly.
——脱贫攻坚任务胜利完成。经过八年持续努力，近1亿农村贫困人口实现脱贫，全 国832个贫困县全部摘帽，960多万贫困人口实现易地搬迁，历史性地解决了绝对贫困问 题。
–The critical fight against poverty was won. Thanks to eight years of continued efforts, close to 100 million poor rural residents and a total of 832 impoverished counties were lifted from poverty, including more than 9.6 million poverty-stricken people relocated from inhospitable areas. We have thus, once and for all, resolved the problem of absolute poverty in China.
——科技创新成果丰硕。构建新型举国体制，组建国家实验室，分批推进全国重点 实验室重组。一些关键核心技术攻关取得新突破，载人航天、探月探火、深海深地探测、 超级计算机、卫星导航、量子信息、核电技术、大飞机制造、人工智能等领域创新成果 不断涌现。全社会研发经费投入强度从2.1％提高到2.5％以上，科技进步贡献率提高到 60％以上，创新支撑发展能力不断增强。
–Fruitful gains were made in scientific and technological innovation. We established a new system for mobilizing resources nationwide to make key technological breakthroughs, opened a number of national laboratories, and reorganized key national laboratories in several batches. Breakthroughs were made in core technologies in key fields, and a stream of innovations emerged in areas such as manned spaceflight, lunar and Martian exploration, deep sea and deep earth probes, supercomputers, satellite navigation, quantum information, nuclear power technology, airliner manufacturing, and artificial intelligence. As spending on R&D increased from 2.1 percent to over 2.5 percent of GDP, the contribution of scientific and technological progress to economic growth exceeded 60 percent. The capacity of innovation to sustain development was enhanced continuously.
——经济结构进一步优化。高技术制造业、装备制造业增加值年均分别增长10.6％、 7.9％，数字经济不断壮大，新产业新业态新模式增加值占国内生产总值的比重达到17％以上。区域协调发展战略、区域重大战略深入实施。常住人口城镇化率从60.2％提高 到65.2％，乡村振兴战略全面实施。经济发展新动能加快成长。
– The economic structure was further improved. The value-added of high-tech manufacturing and of equipment manufacturing increased by an annual average of 10.6 percent and 7.9 percent respectively. China’s digital economy continued to grow in strength. The value-added of new industries and new business forms and models accounted for over 17 percent of GDP. We fully implemented the coordinated regional development strategy and major regional development strategies. The share of permanent urban residents in the total population rose from 60.2 percent to 65.2 percent. The rural revitalization strategy was implemented across the board. New drivers of growth developed at a much faster pace.
——基础设施更加完善。一批防汛抗旱、引水调水等重大水利工程开工建设。高速 铁路运营里程从2.5万公里增加到4.2万公里，高速公路里程从13.6万公里增加到17.7万 公里。新建改建农村公路125万公里。新增机场容量4亿人次。发电装机容量增长40％以 上。所有地级市实现千兆光网覆盖，所有行政村实现通宽带。
– Infrastructure was further upgraded. Work began on the construction of major water conservancy projects such as those against floods and droughts and those for water diversion. The length of in-service high-speed railways increased from 25,000 kilometers to 42,000 kilometers, and the expressway network expanded from 136,000 kilometers to 177,000 kilometers. In rural areas, 1.25 million kilometers of road were newly built or upgraded. The passenger handling capacity of airports increased by 400 million. Installed power capacity increased by more than 40 percent. Gigabit internet services covered all prefecture-level cities, and broadband internet was installed in every administrative village in China.
——改革开放持续深化。全面深化改革开放推动构建新发展格局，供给侧结构性改 革深入实施，简政放权、放管结合、优化服务改革不断深化，营商环境明显改善。共建 “一带一路”扎实推进。推动区域全面经济伙伴关系协定（RCEP）生效实施，建成全球 最大自由贸易区。货物进出口总额年均增长8.6％，突破40万亿元、连续多年居世界首 位，吸引外资和对外投资居世界前列。
– Reform and opening up were deepened. We deepened reform and opening up across the board in an effort to create a new pattern of development. We further promoted supply-side structural reform and reforms to streamline government administration, delegate power, improve regulation, and upgrade services. Thanks to these endeavors, a notable improvement has been made in the business environment. Joint efforts to advance the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) made solid headway. China played its part for the entry into force of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) agreement, which has created the world’s largest free trade zone. China’s total volume of trade in goods exceeded 40 trillion yuan, registering an annual growth rate of 8.6 percent. It has thus been the top global trader for many years running. China is now both a major destination for foreign investment and a leading global outbound investor.
——生态环境明显改善。单位国内生产总值能耗下降8.1％、二氧化碳排放下降14.1％。地级及以上城市细颗粒物（PM2.5）平均浓度下降27.5％，重污染天数下降超过五成， 全国地表水优良水体比例由67.9％上升到87.9％。设立首批国家公园，建立各级各类自 然保护地9000多处。美丽中国建设迈出重大步伐。
– The quality of the eco-environment improved significantly. Energy consumption per unit of GDP dropped by 8.1 percent, and carbon dioxide emissions fell by 14.1 percent. In cities at and above the prefecture level, the average concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) dropped by 27.5 percent and the number of days with heavy air pollution fell by over 50 percent. The proportion of surface water bodies of good quality increased from 67.9 percent to 87.9 percent. The first group of national parks were established, and over 9,000 nature reserves spanning all categories and levels were established. We have made significant strides in building a Beautiful China.
——人民生活水平不断提高。居民收入增长与经济增长基本同步。居民消费价格年 均上涨2.1％。新增劳动力平均受教育年限从13.5年提高到14年。基本养老保险参保人 数增加1.4亿、覆盖10.5亿人，基本医保水平稳步提高。多年累计改造棚户区住房4200 多万套，上亿人出棚进楼、实现安居。
– Living standards rose steadily. Personal income grew generally in step with economic growth. The CPI rose at an annual rate of 2.1 percent. The average length of schooling for new entrants to the workforce rose from 13.5 years to 14 years. Basic old-age insurance now covers 1.05 billion people, an increase of 140 million over the past five years. Basic medical insurance saw steady improvement. Over the past decade, we have rebuilt more than 42 million housing units in run-down urban areas, and over 100 million people have moved into new apartments.
After many years of meticulous preparation, we successfully presented the world with streamlined, safe, and splendid 2022 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games, thus making great contributions to promoting the Olympic movement as well as solidarity and friendship among the peoples of all countries.
新冠疫情发生三年多来，以习近平同志为核心的党中央始终坚持人民至上、生命至 上，强化医疗资源和物资保障，全力救治新冠患者，有效保护人民群众生命安全和身体 健康，因时因势优化调整防控政策措施，全国人民坚忍不拔，取得重大决定性胜利。在 极不平凡的抗疫历程中，各地区各部门各单位做了大量工作，各行各业共克时艰，广大 医务人员不畏艰辛，特别是亿万人民克服多重困难、付出和奉献、都十分不易，大家共同抵御疫情重大挑战，面对尚未结束的疫情，仍在不断巩固统筹疫情防控和经济社会发 展成果。
Since Covid-19 struck more than three years ago, the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core has placed the people and their lives above all else. It has boosted supplies of medical resources and materials, made every effort to ensure treatment for all patients, effectively safeguarded our people’s health and safety, and improved and adjusted response policies and measures in light of changing conditions. The Chinese people have pulled through with fortitude and resilience and secured a major and decisive victory in the fight against Covid-19. Throughout this truly remarkable endeavor, all localities, departments, and organizations have made tremendous efforts, people in various sectors have worked together to get through tough times, and all medical personnel have remained fearless in the face of adversity. Most notably, our people in their hundreds of millions have prevailed over many difficulties and challenges, made great sacrifices, and played their due part. It has not been an easy journey for anyone, but together we have overcome the huge challenge of Covid-19. As the pandemic is not yet over, we must keep working to consolidate our achievements in both Covid-19 response and economic and social development.
Over the past five years, we have fully implemented the decisions and plans of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core. The highlights of our work are as follows:
（一）创新宏观调控，保持经济运行在合理区间。面对贸易保护主义抬头、疫情冲 击等接踵而来的严峻挑战，创新宏观调控方式，不过度依赖投资，统筹运用财政货币等 政策，重点支持市场主体纾困发展。把年度主要预期目标作为一个有机整体来把握，加 强区间调控、定向调控、相机调控、精准调控，既果断加大力度，又不搞“大水漫灌”、透支未来，持续做好“六稳”、“六保”工作，强化保居民就业、保基本民生、保市 场主体、保粮食能源安全、保产业链供应链稳定、保基层运转，推动经济爬坡过坎、持 续前行。
1.We developed new ways of conducting macro regulation to keep the economy operating within an appropriate range. In response to a succession of grave challenges, including mounting protectionism and the Covid-19 pandemic, we adopted new ways of conducting macro regulation and avoided overreliance on investment as a means of achieving economic growth. We employed a wide range of policies including fiscal and monetary policies and stayed focused on helping market entities overcome difficulties and grow. We adopted a holistic approach to achieving the projected development targets for each year and stepped up range-based, targeted, well-timed, and precision regulation. We took decisive measures to step up macro policy support while refraining from adopting a deluge of strong stimulus policies that would eat into our potential for future growth.We worked relentlessly to ensure stability on six fronts and security in six areas, * with a particular emphasis on the latter, in order to steer the economy through various trials and difficulties and sustain growth. (*The six fronts refer to employment, the financial sector, foreign trade, foreign investment, domestic investment, and expectations. The six areas refer to job security, basic living needs, operations of market entities, food and energy security, stable industrial and supply chains, and the normal functioning of primary-level governments.)
坚持实施积极的财政政策。合理把握赤字规模，五年总体赤字率控制在3％以内，政 府负债率控制在50％左右。不断优化支出结构，教育科技、生态环保、基本民生等重点 领域得到有力保障。实施大规模减税降费政策，制度性安排与阶段性措施相结合，疫情 发生后减税降费力度进一步加大，成为应对冲击的关键举措。彻底完成营改增任务、取 消营业税，将增值税收入占比最高、涉及行业广泛的税率从17％降至13％，阶段性将小 规模纳税人增值税起征点从月销售额3万元提高到15万元、小微企业所得税实际最低税 负率从10％降至2.5％。减税降费公平普惠、高效直达，五年累计减税5.4万亿元、降费 2.8万亿元，既帮助企业渡过难关、留得青山，也放水养鱼、涵养税源，年均新增涉税 企业和个体工商户等超过1100万户，各年度中央财政收入预算都顺利完成，考虑留抵退 税因素，全国财政收入十年接近翻一番。推动财力下沉，中央一般公共预算支出中对地 方转移支付占比提高到70％左右，建立并常态化实施中央财政资金直达机制。各级政府 坚持过紧日子，严控一般性支出，中央部门带头压减支出，盘活存量资金和闲置资产， 腾出的资金千方百计惠企裕民，全国财政支出70％以上用于民生。
We pursued a proactive fiscal policy. The deficit was kept at a reasonable level. Over these five years, the deficit-to-GDP ratio and the government debt ratio were respectively kept within 3 percent and around 50 percent. We continued to improve the structure of government spending and ensured sufficient funding for key areas such as education, science and technology, environmental protection, and efforts to meet people’s basic living needs. We implemented a policy of large-scale tax and fee cuts with both institutional arrangements and time-limited measures. Tax and fee reductions were intensified following the outbreak of Covid-19, and they became a pivotal part of our response to the epidemic. We completed the task of replacing business tax with value-added tax and abolished the former. The rate of VAT was lowered from 17 percent to 13 percent in many sectors where VAT accounts for the largest share of tax receipts. The VAT threshold was raised from 30,000 yuan to 150,000 yuan of monthly sales for small-scale taxpayers in a phased way, and the minimum corporate income tax rate was cut from 10 percent to 2.5 percent in real terms for micro and small businesses.Tax and fee cuts are equitable, inclusive, effective, and directly accessible for those in need. Over the past five years, tax cuts and fee reductions respectively totaled 5.4 trillion yuan and 2.8 trillion yuan. This policy not only helped enterprises overcome difficulties and stay afloat, but also nurtured business growth and cultivated sources of tax revenue. On average, over 11 million market entities including enterprises and self-employed individuals were newly registered with the tax authorities each year, and the central government met all of its annual targets for budgetary revenue. With VAT credit refunds taken into account, national fiscal revenue almost doubled over the past decade. We channeled more financial resources toward lower levels of government, with the share of transfer payments to local governments rising to about 70 percent of central government expenditures. We introduced direct allocation of central budgetary funds to prefecture- and county-level governments and made it a regular practice. At every level, governments kept their belts tightened by strictly controlling general expenditures, and central government departments led the way in cutting back spending. We also put idle funds and assets to good use and tapped every means possible to see that these funds were used to benefit businesses and people. Over 70 percent of government expenditures went toward ensuring the people’s wellbeing.
坚持实施稳健的货币政策。根据形势变化灵活把握政策力度，保持流动性合理充裕， 用好降准、再贷款等政策工具，加大对实体经济的有效支持，缓解中小微企业融资难融 资贵等问题。制造业贷款余额从16.3万亿元增加到27.4万亿元。普惠小微贷款余额从8.2 万亿元增加到23.8万亿元、年均增长24％，贷款平均利率较五年前下降1.5个百分点。人民币汇率在合理均衡水平上弹性增强、保持基本稳定。完全化解了本世纪初形成的 14486亿元金融改革历史成本。运用市场化法治化方式，精准处置一批大型企业集团风 险，平稳化解高风险中小金融机构风险，大型金融机构健康发展，金融体系稳健运行， 守住了不发生系统性风险的底线。
We continued a prudent monetary policy. We made flexible policy adjustments in view of new developments and maintained reasonably sufficient liquidity. We made good use of policy instruments such as required reserve ratio reductions and re-lending to increase effective support for the real economy and alleviate the difficulties faced by MSMEs in accessing affordable financing. The balance of loans to the manufacturing sector increased from 16.3 trillion yuan to 27.4 trillion yuan. Inclusive loans to micro and small businesses increased at an annual rate of 24%, rising from 8.2 trillion yuan to 23.8 trillion yuan, with the average interest rate falling by 1.5 percentage points compared to five years ago. We saw that the RMB exchange rate floated with greater flexibility at an adaptive, balanced level while remaining generally stable. We completely paid off the outstanding debt of 1.4486 trillion yuan incurred in the reform of financial institutions since the beginning of this century. Using market- and law-based means, we took targeted steps to deal with the risks of several large enterprise groups and made steady headway in defusing risks in high-risk small and medium-sized financial institutions. Large financial institutions registered sound growth, financial systems operated in a robust and stable manner, and we ensured that no systemic risks arose.
强化就业优先政策导向。把稳就业作为经济运行在合理区间的关键指标。着力促进 市场化社会化就业，加大对企业稳岗扩岗支持力度。将养老保险单位缴费比例从20％降 至16％，同时充实全国社保基金，储备规模从1.8万亿元增加到2.5万亿元以上。实施失 业保险基金稳岗返还、留工培训补助等政策。持续推进大众创业万众创新，连续举办8 届全国双创活动周、超过5.2亿人次参与，鼓励以创业带动就业，新就业形态和灵活就 业成为就业增收的重要渠道。做好高校毕业生、退役军人、农民工等群体就业工作。使 用失业保险基金等资金支持技能培训。实施高职扩招和职业技能提升三年行动，累计扩 招413万人、培训8300多万人次。就业是民生之基、财富之源。14亿多人口大国保持就 业稳定，难能可贵，蕴含着巨大创造力。
We pursued an employment-first policy. Stable employment has remained a key indicator of the economy operating within the appropriate range. We worked hard to promote market-based employment and stepped up efforts to support enterprises in stabilizing and expanding employment. The ratio of enterprise contributions to basic old-age insurance was lowered from 20 percent to 16 percent and the national social security fund was replenished to expand its scale from 1.8 trillion yuan to over 2.5 trillion yuan. We implemented policies on refunding unemployment insurance funds to keep employment stable and granting training subsidies for job retention to hard-hit businesses. To promote entrepreneurship and innovation nationwide, we have held National Entrepreneurship and Innovation Week for eight consecutive years, which racked up a cumulative participation of more than 520 million. We encouraged job creation through business startups, and new and flexible employment forms became an important source of employment and income growth. We took solid measures to ensure employment for college graduates, ex-service personnel, and rural migrant workers. We used unemployment insurance funds and other funds to support skills training programs. We carried out a three-year action plan for expanding enrollment in vocational colleges and upgrading vocational skills. This drive saw vocational colleges enrolling an additional 4.13 million students and providing over 83 million training opportunities. Employment is the cornerstone of people’s wellbeing and the wellspring of wealth. It is truly remarkable that China, a big country with over 1.4 billion people, has kept employment stable, and such stability is a source of tremendous creativity for our country.
保持物价总体平稳。在应对冲击中没有持续大幅增加赤字规模，也没有超发货币， 为物价稳定创造了宏观条件。下大气力抓农业生产，强化产销衔接和储备调节，确保粮 食和生猪、蔬菜等稳定供应，及时解决煤炭电力供应紧张问题，满足民生和生产用能需 求，保障交通物流畅通。加强市场监管，维护正常价格秩序。十年来我国居民消费价格 涨幅稳定在2％左右的较低水平，成如容易却艰辛，既维护了市场经济秩序、为宏观政 策实施提供了空间，又有利于更好保障基本民生。
Prices were kept generally stable. We refrained from repeatedly increasing the deficit by a large margin in response to shocks and printing an excessive amount of money. This created the macro conditions needed for stabilizing prices. We redoubled efforts to bolster agricultural production, ensured better linkage between production and sales and managed reserves more effectively, and ensured a stable supply of agricultural products, such as grain, hogs, and vegetables. We promptly addressed shortages of coal and electricity to meet residential and production energy needs. Smooth transportation and logistics were ensured. Market oversight was strengthened to maintain price stability. For the past decade, CPI increases in China have been kept at a comparatively low level of around 2 percent. The difficulty of such an achievement should not be underestimated. This has been conducive to maintaining the order of the market economy, to creating leeway for macro policy implementation, and most importantly, to better meeting the basic living needs of our people.
（二）如期打赢脱贫攻坚战，巩固拓展脱贫攻坚成果。全面建成小康社会最艰巨最 繁重的任务在农村特别是在贫困地区。坚持精准扶贫，聚焦“三区三州”等深度贫困地 区，强化政策倾斜支持，优先保障脱贫攻坚资金投入，对脱贫难度大的县和村挂牌督战。深入实施产业、就业、生态、教育、健康、社会保障等帮扶，加强易地搬迁后续扶持， 重点解决“两不愁三保障”问题，脱贫群众不愁吃、不愁穿，义务教育、基本医疗、住 房安全有保障，饮水安全也有了保障。贫困地区农村居民收入明显增加，生产生活条件 显著改善。
2.We secured victory in the critical battle against poverty within the set time frame and consolidated and built on our gains in poverty alleviation.The hardest, most arduous tasks in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects were in rural areas and in impoverished regions in particular. We carried out a policy of targeted poverty alleviation, with a focus on deeply impoverished areas such as the three regions and the three prefectures. * (*The three regions refer to Tibet, the four southern Xinjiang prefectures of Hotan, Aksu, Kashi, and Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture of Kizilsu, and the Tibetan ethnic areas in Sichuan, Yunnan, Gansu, and Qinghai provinces. The three prefectures are Liangshan in Sichuan, Nujiang in Yunnan, and Linxia in Gansu.) We weighted policy support toward these areas, provided funding for poverty alleviation efforts on a priority basis, and placed counties and villages facing difficulty in poverty alleviation under special supervision to ensure that they met poverty alleviation targets.We provided assistance to develop local industries and boost employment, ecological conservation, education, healthcare, social security and other fields of endeavor, strengthened follow-up support for people relocated from inhospitable areas, and made major efforts to meet the basic food and clothing needs of poor people and see that they had access to compulsory education, basic medical services, and safe housing and drinking water. Rural residents in impoverished regions saw their incomes grow by a significant margin, and their working and living conditions noticeably improved.
推动巩固拓展脱贫攻坚成果同乡村振兴有效衔接。保持过渡期内主要帮扶政策总体 稳定，严格落实“四个不摘”要求，建立健全防止返贫动态监测和帮扶机制，有力应对 疫情、灾情等不利影响，确保不发生规模性返贫。确定并集中支持160个国家乡村振兴 重点帮扶县，加大对易地搬迁集中安置区等重点区域支持力度，坚持并完善东西部协作、 对口支援、定点帮扶等机制，选派用好医疗、教育“组团式”帮扶干部人才和科技特派 员，推动脱贫地区加快发展和群众稳定增收。
We worked both to consolidate and build on our achievements in poverty alleviation and to promote the revitalization of rural areas. Major poverty relief policies remained largely unchanged during the transition period following the elimination of absolute poverty. We made sure that though poverty had been eliminated, all of the related responsibilities, policies, support, and oversight remained in place. We established effective monitoring and assistance mechanisms to prevent people lifted out of poverty from relapsing into poverty and took robust action in response to natural disasters and Covid-19 to forestall any large-scale relapse into poverty. A total of 160 key counties were designated to receive assistance for rural revitalization and dedicated support was provided to them. We stepped up support for areas where residents relocated from inhospitable areas were resettled together in communities as well as for other key areas, and continued to implement and improve mechanisms for east-west cooperation, paired assistance, and targeted support. We also sent teams of medical and educational personnel as well as technicians to provide assistance to previously impoverished areas. All of these efforts enabled areas that were lifted out of poverty to accelerate development and keep raising the incomes of local residents.
（三）聚焦重点领域和关键环节深化改革，更大激发市场活力和社会创造力。坚持 社会主义市场经济改革方向，处理好政府和市场的关系，使市场在资源配置中起决定性 作用，更好发挥政府作用，推动有效市场和有为政府更好结合。
3.We deepened reform of key areas and crucial links to energize the market and stimulate social creativity. We continued reforms to develop the socialist market economy and struck a proper balance between the government and the market. This enabled the market to play a decisive role in resource allocation and the government to better play its role, thus promoting both an efficient market and a well-functioning government.
持续推进政府职能转变。完成国务院及地方政府机构改革。加快建设全国统一大市 场，建设高标准市场体系，营造市场化法治化国际化营商环境。大道至简，政简易行。持之以恒推进触动政府自身利益的改革。进一步简政放权，放宽市场准入，全面实施市 场准入负面清单制度，清单管理措施比制度建立之初压减64％，将行政许可事项全部纳 入清单管理。多年来取消和下放行政许可事项1000多项，中央政府层面核准投资项目压 减90％以上，工业产品生产许可证从60类减少到10类，工程建设项目全流程审批时间压 缩到不超过120个工作日。改革商事制度，推行“证照分离”改革，企业开办时间从一 个月以上压缩到目前的平均4个工作日以内，实行中小微企业简易注销制度。坚持放管 结合，加强事中事后监管，严格落实监管责任，防止监管缺位、重放轻管，强化食品药 品等重点领域质量和安全监管，推行“双随机、一公开”等方式加强公正监管，规范行使行政裁量权。加强反垄断和反不正当竞争，全面落实公平竞争审查制度，改革反垄断 执法体制。依法规范和引导资本健康发展，依法坚决管控资本无序扩张。不断优化服务， 推进政务服务集成办理，压减各类证明事项，加快数字政府建设，90％以上的政务服务 实现网上可办，户籍证明、社保转接等200多项群众经常办理事项实现跨省通办。取消 所有省界高速公路收费站。制定实施优化营商环境、市场主体登记管理、促进个体工商 户发展、保障中小企业款项支付等条例。改革给人们经商办企业更多便利和空间，去年 底企业数量超过5200万户、个体工商户超过1.1亿户，市场主体总量超过1.6亿户、是十 年前的3倍，发展内生动力明显增强。
Our drive to transform government functions continued. We completed institutional reform of both the State Council and local governments. We accelerated efforts to build a unified national market, developed a high-standard market system, and worked to create a market-oriented and law-based business environment in keeping with international standards. Great truths are always simple, and simple government administration is always most effective. We made consistent efforts to promote reforms despite the fact that they affected the interests of government itself. We kept working to streamline government administration and delegate power. We broadened market access with full implementation of the negative list system. Since the introduction of this system, the negative list has been shortened by 64 percent, and the practice of list-based management has been applied to all items requiring government approval. Over the years, we have cancelled or delegated to lower-level authorities the power of administrative approval for over 1,000 items and slashed the number of investment items subject to central government approval by over 90 percent. The number of industrial production permit categories has been reduced from 60 to 10, and the approval time for construction projects has been cut to no more than 120 working days. We carried out institutional reforms in the business sector and introduced the reform to separate out the business license from certificates required for starting a business. Today, the average time it takes to register a business is less than four working days, down from more than a month; and a simplified deregistration system is in place for MSMEs. While delegating power, we also improved regulation. We strengthened ongoing and ex post oversight. We saw to it that regulatory responsibilities were strictly fulfilled, that no regulatory vacuums were left, and that no power was delegated at the expense of regulation. We beefed up quality and safety supervision for food, drugs, and other key items, ensured impartial regulation by adopting practices such as the random selection of inspectors and inspection targets and the prompt release of results, and set standards for the exercise of discretionary administrative powers. We took stronger action against monopolies and unfair competition, fully implemented the system of fair competition review, and reformed the system for enforcing anti-monopoly laws. We conducted regulation and provided guidance in accordance with the law to promote the sound development of capital and took resolute, law-based moves to prevent the blind expansion of capital. We continued to upgrade government services and worked to provide more one-stop services. Certification requirements were reduced, and the development of a digital government was accelerated. Now, more than 90 percent of government services can be accessed online; over 200 high-demand services, including household certification and the transfer of social security accounts, can be handled on an inter-provincial basis. All expressway toll booths on provincial borders have been removed. We formulated and implemented regulations on improving the business environment, on market entity registration and administration, on promoting development of individually owned businesses, and on ensuring payments to SMEs. These reforms have provided people seeking to go into business with greater convenience and scope. By the end of last year, there were over 52 million enterprises and more than 110 million self-employed individuals in China, and the total number of market entities had surpassed the 160-million mark, three times the figure a decade ago. As a result, the internal momentum for development has increased remarkably.
促进多种所有制经济共同发展。坚持和完善社会主义基本经济制度，坚持“两个毫 不动摇”。完成国企改革三年行动任务，健全现代企业制度，推动国企聚焦主责主业优 化重组、提质增效。促进民营企业健康发展，破除各种隐性壁垒，一视同仁给予政策支 持，提振民间投资信心。完善产权保护制度，保护企业家合法权益，弘扬企业家精神。
We promoted the common development of enterprises under all forms of ownership. We upheld and improved China’s fundamental socialist economic systems and worked unswervingly both to consolidate and develop the public sector and to encourage, support, and guide development of the non-public sector. The tasks set out in the three-year action plan for SOE reform were completed and the modern corporate structure was improved, thus enabling SOEs to upgrade and restructure their operations so as to focus on their primary responsibilities and core business and enhance quality and performance. We promoted the sound development of private businesses by removing hidden barriers of various forms and ensuring all enterprises received policy support on an equal basis. This has boosted the confidence of private investors. We improved the system of property rights protection to safeguard entrepreneurs’ lawful rights and interests and promote the entrepreneurial spirit.
推进财税金融体制改革。深化预算管理体制改革，加大预算公开力度，推进中央与 地方财政事权和支出责任划分改革，完善地方政府债务管理体系，构建综合与分类相结 合的个人所得税制。推动金融监管体制改革，统筹推进中小银行补充资本和改革化险， 推进股票发行注册制改革，完善资本市场基础制度，加强金融稳定法治建设。
We continued to reform the fiscal, taxation, and financial systems. We deepened reform of the budget management system and boosted budget transparency.We advanced reforms to divide fiscal powers and spending responsibilities between central and local governments, improved the system for managing local government debt, and established an individual income tax system based on both adjusted gross income and specific income types. We promoted reform of the financial regulatory system and encouraged small and medium banks to replenish their capital and defuse risks through reform. We advanced reforms to implement a registration-based IPO system, refined the underlying systems of the capital market, and strengthened legislation for financial stability.
（四）深入实施创新驱动发展战略，推动产业结构优化升级。深化供给侧结构性改 革，完善国家创新体系，推进科技自立自强，紧紧依靠创新提升实体经济发展水平，不 断培育壮大发展新动能，有效应对外部打压遏制。
4.We fully implemented the innovation-driven development strategy and improved and upgraded the industrial structure. We deepened supply-side structural reform, improved China’s innovation system, and boosted self-reliance and strength in science and technology. We promoted development of the real economy through innovation, continued to foster new drivers of growth, and effectively countered external attempts to suppress and contain China’s development.
增强科技创新引领作用。强化国家战略科技力量，实施一批科技创新重大项目，加 强关键核心技术攻关。发挥好高校、科研院所作用，支持新型研发机构发展。推进国际 和区域科技创新中心建设，布局建设综合性国家科学中心。支持基础研究和应用基础研 究，全国基础研究经费五年增长1倍。改革科研项目和经费管理制度，赋予科研单位和 科研人员更大自主权，努力将广大科技人员从繁杂的行政事务中解脱出来。加强知识产 权保护，激发创新动力。促进国际科技交流合作。通过市场化机制激励企业创新，不断 提高企业研发费用加计扣除比例，将制造业企业、科技型中小企业分别从50％、75％提 高至100％，并阶段性扩大到所有适用行业，对企业投入基础研究、购置设备给予政策 支持，各类支持创新的税收优惠政策年度规模已超过万亿元。创设支持创新的金融政策 工具，引导创业投资等发展。企业研发投入保持两位数增长，一大批创新企业脱颖而出。
The leading role of technological innovation was reinforced. To increase China’s strength in strategic science and technology, we launched a number of major sci-tech innovation projects and stepped up efforts to secure breakthroughs in core technologies in key fields. We gave full play to the role of higher education institutions and research institutes and supported the development of new types of R&D institutions. Further strides were made in building international and regional centers for scientific and technological innovation and comprehensive national science centers. We provided support for basic research and applied basic research, with our country’s spending on basic research doubling over the past five years. The systems for research projects and funding management were reformed to grant greater autonomy to research institutions and researchers and relieve researchers of numerous administrative chores. Intellectual property rights protection was bolstered to encourage innovation. International science and technology exchanges and cooperation were promoted. We leveraged market-based mechanisms to encourage enterprise innovations. The additional tax deduction for R&D expenses was increased on several occasions, particularly for manufacturing enterprises and small and medium sci-tech enterprises, with coverage rising from 50 percent and 75 percent, respectively, to 100 percent for both. This policy was extended to cover all eligible sectors on a temporary basis. All this provided policy support to enterprises for carrying out basic research and purchasing equipment. In total, annual innovation tax breaks and incentives exceeded one trillion yuan.We also developed financial policy instruments to facilitate innovation and guided the development of venture capital. Thanks to these efforts, R&D spending by enterprises has maintained double-digit growth, and a large number of innovative enterprises have emerged.
推动产业向中高端迈进。把制造业作为发展实体经济的重点，促进工业经济平稳运 行，保持制造业比重基本稳定。严格执行环保、质量、安全等法规标准，淘汰落后产能。开展重点产业强链补链行动。启动一批产业基础再造工程。鼓励企业加快设备更新和技 术改造，将固定资产加速折旧优惠政策扩大至全部制造业。推动高端装备、生物医药、 新能源汽车、光伏、风电等新兴产业加快发展。持续推进网络提速降费，发展“互联网＋”。移动互联网用户数增加到14.5亿户。支持工业互联网发展，有力促进了制造业数字化智能化。专精特新中小企业达7万多家。促进平台经济健康持续发展，发挥其带动 就业创业、拓展消费市场、创新生产模式等作用。发展研发设计、现代物流、检验检测 认证等生产性服务业。加强全面质量管理和质量基础设施建设。中国制造的品质和竞争 力不断提升。
Industries were encouraged to develop toward the medium- and high-end. Priority was given to manufacturing in the development of the real economy, and the stable performance of the industrial sector was ensured. The share of manufacturing in the economy remained largely unchanged. Laws, regulations, and standards on environmental protection, quality, and safety were strictly implemented, and outdated production facilities were shut down. We worked to shore up weak links in the industrial and supply chains of key industries. A number of industrial foundation reengineering projects were launched. To accelerate the pace of equipment upgrading and technological transformation of enterprises, the preferential policy on accelerated depreciation of fixed assets was extended to cover the entire manufacturing sector. We sped up the development of emerging industries like high-end equipment, biomedicine, new-energy vehicles, photovoltaic power, and wind power. Continued efforts were made to provide faster broadband speeds and lower internet rates, and Internet Plus initiatives were boosted. The number of mobile internet subscriptions increased to 1.45 billion. We supported the development of the Industrial Internet and vigorously promoted digital and smart manufacturing. The number of SMEs producing new and unique products using special and sophisticated technologies exceeded 70,000. We promoted the sound and sustainable development of the platform economy and fully leveraged its role in boosting employment and business startups, expanding the consumer market, and creating new production modes. Producer services such as R&D and design, modern logistics, and inspection, testing, and certification registered further growth. Across-the-board quality management and national quality infrastructure were improved. Chinese products are now of a higher quality and more competitive.
5.We expanded effective domestic demand and promoted coordinated regional development and new urbanization. To create a new pattern of development, we fully leveraged China’s super-sized market and carried out the strategy of expanding domestic demand to foster more growth engines.
着力扩大消费和有效投资。疫情发生前，消费已经成为我国经济增长的主要拉动力。面对需求不足甚至出现收缩，推动消费尽快恢复。多渠道促进居民增收，提高中低收入 群体收入。支持汽车、家电等大宗消费，汽车保有量突破3亿辆、增长46.7％。推动线 上线下消费深度融合，实物商品网上零售额占社会消费品零售总额的比重从15.8％提高 到27.2％。发展城市社区便民商业，完善农村快递物流配送体系。帮扶旅游业发展。围 绕补短板、调结构、增后劲扩大有效投资。创新投融资体制机制，预算内投资引导和撬 动社会投资成倍增加，增加地方政府专项债券额度，重点支持交通、水利、能源、信息 等基础设施和民生工程建设，鼓励社会资本参与建设运营，调动民间投资积极性。
We strived to expand consumption and effective investment.Before the outbreak of Covid-19, consumption had become the primary driver of China’s economic growth. In the face of insufficient and even shrinking demand, we acted to secure a swift recovery in consumption. We promoted personal income growth through various avenues and saw the earnings of middle- and low-income groups rise. Spending on automobiles, home appliances, and other big-ticket items was supported. The number of cars in use in China topped 300 million, an increase of 46.7 percent compared to five years ago. We vigorously promoted both online and offline consumption, raising the share of online sales for physical goods from 15.8 percent to 27.2 percent of total retail sales of consumer goods. Businesses serving residents’ daily needs flourished in urban communities, and the express delivery system in rural areas was improved. We also provided support for the tourism sector. We expanded effective investment to shore up weak links, promote structural adjustments, and sustain growth momentum. Innovations were made in investment and financing systems and mechanisms, and nongovernmental investment increased several times over under the guidance and drive of central government budgetary investment. We increased the scale of local government special-purpose bonds, with a high priority given to the development of sectors such as transportation, water conservancy, energy, information, and other infrastructure as well as projects for the people’s wellbeing. We also encouraged nongovernmental capital to participate in the construction and operation of such projects, and this stimulated investment from nongovernmental sources.
增强区域发展平衡性协调性。统筹推进西部大开发、东北全面振兴、中部地区崛起、 东部率先发展，中西部地区经济增速总体高于东部地区。加大对革命老区、民族地区、 边疆地区的支持力度，中央财政对相关地区转移支付资金比五年前增长66.8％。推进京 津冀协同发展、长江经济带发展、长三角一体化发展，推动黄河流域生态保护和高质量 发展。高标准高质量建设雄安新区。发展海洋经济。支持经济困难地区发展，促进资源 型地区转型发展，鼓励有条件地区更大发挥带动作用，推动形成更多新的增长极增长带。
We achieved more balanced and coordinated regional development. We took coordinated steps to promote large-scale development of the western region, the full revitalization of the Northeast, the rise of the central region, and trailblazing development in the eastern region. Overall, the central and western regions outpaced the eastern region in terms of economic growth rate. We stepped up support for old revolutionary base areas, areas with large ethnic minority populations, and border areas, with central government transfer payments to these areas rising by 66.8 percent over these five years. We promoted coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the development of the Yangtze Economic Belt, the integrated development of the Yangtze River Delta, and ecological conservation and high-quality development in the Yellow River basin. The Xiong’an New Area was built according to high standards and quality requirements. Development of the marine economy was promoted. We supported regions facing economic difficulty in pursuing development, promoted the economic transformation of resource-depleted areas, encouraged regions with favorable conditions to lead the way in development, and fostered more growth poles and growth belts.
持续推进以人为核心的新型城镇化。我国仍处于城镇化进程中，每年有上千万农村 人口转移到城镇。完善城市特别是县城功能，增强综合承载能力。分类放宽或取消城镇 落户限制，十年1.4亿农村人口在城镇落户。有序发展城市群和都市圈，促进大中小城 市协调发展。推动成渝地区双城经济圈建设。坚持房子是用来住的、不是用来炒的定位， 建立实施房地产长效机制，扩大保障性住房供给，推进长租房市场建设，稳地价、稳房 价、稳预期，因城施策促进房地产市场健康发展。加强城市基础设施建设，轨道交通运 营里程从4500多公里增加到近1万公里，排水管道从63万公里增加到89万公里。改造城 镇老旧小区16.7万个，惠及2900多万家庭。
We continued to advance people-centered new urbanization. China is still in the process of urbanization, with ten million plus rural people moving to urban areas each year. We improved the functions of cities and particularly county seats to increase their overall carrying capacity. Restrictions on permanent urban residency were eased or removed on a category-by-category basis, and 140 million rural residents were granted permanent urban residency over the past decade. We promoted well-ordered development of city clusters and metropolitan areas and coordinated development of cities of different sizes. Development of the Chengdu-Chongqing economic zone was promoted. Adhering to the principle that housing is for living in and not for speculation, we established long-term mechanisms in the real estate market, expanded the supply of government-subsidized housing, and developed the long-term rental market. We kept land costs, house prices, and market expectations stable and adopted city-specific measures to facilitate sound development of the real estate sector. Urban infrastructure was improved. The length of in-service urban rail transit lines increased from just over 4,500 kilometers to close to 10,000 kilometers and the length of urban drainage pipelines rose from 630,000 kilometers to 890,000 kilometers. A total of 167,000 old urban residential compounds were renovated, benefiting more than 29 million households.
6.We ensured China’s food security and vigorously implemented the rural revitalization strategy.We improved policies to boost agriculture and benefit farmers, continuously gave priority to agricultural production, and moved faster to modernize the agricultural sector and rural areas.
提升农业综合生产能力。稳定和扩大粮食播种面积，扩种大豆油料，优化生产结构 布局，提高单产和品质。完善粮食生产支持政策，稳定种粮农民补贴，合理确定稻谷、 小麦最低收购价，加大对产粮大县奖励力度，健全政策性农业保险制度。加强耕地保护， 实施黑土地保护工程，完善水利设施，新建高标准农田4.56亿亩。推进国家粮食安全产 业带建设。加快种业、农机等科技创新和推广应用，农作物耕种收综合机械化率从67％提高到73％。全面落实粮食安全党政同责，强化粮食和重要农产品稳产保供，始终不懈地把14亿多中国人的饭碗牢牢端在自己手中。
We worked to enhance overall agricultural production capacity. We stabilized and increased grain acreage, expanded the production of soybeans and other oil-yielding crops, improved the composition and geographic distribution of agricultural production, and increased per unit crop yield and the quality of grains. We refined policies to support grain production, kept subsidies for grain growers stable, and set minimum purchase prices for rice and wheat at reasonable levels. Rewards for major grain-producing counties were increased and the policy-based agricultural insurance system was improved. We strengthened the protection of cropland, launched an initiative to protect chernozem soils, improved water conservancy infrastructure, and increased the area of high-standard cropland by 30.4 million hectares. We developed agricultural belts for ensuring national food security. We accelerated the pace of innovation in seed technology and agricultural machinery and application of new research advances. The rate of mechanization in crops plowing, planting, and harvesting increased from 67 percent to 73 percent. We ensured that both Party committees and governments assumed responsibility for ensuring food security and ensured stable production and supply of grain and other major agricultural products. With these efforts, we have fully secured the food supply of more than 1.4 billion people.
扎实推进农村改革发展。巩固和完善农村基本经营制度，完成承包地确权登记颁证 和农村集体产权制度改革阶段性任务，稳步推进多种形式适度规模经营，抓好家庭农场 和农民合作社发展，加快发展农业社会化服务。启动乡村建设行动，持续整治提升农村 人居环境，加强水电路气信邮等基础设施建设，实现符合条件的乡镇和建制村通硬化路、 通客车，农村自来水普及率从80％提高到87％，多年累计改造农村危房2400多万户。深 化供销合作社、集体林权、农垦等改革。立足特色资源发展乡村产业，促进农民就业创 业增收。为保障农民工及时拿到应得报酬，持续强化农民工工资拖欠治理，出台实施保 障农民工工资支付条例，严厉打击恶意拖欠行为。
Steady progress was made in rural reform and development. We consolidated and improved the basic rural operation system and completed the work to determine, register, and certify contracted rural land rights and the reform of the rural collective property rights system for the current stage. We steadily promoted appropriately scaled agribusiness operations of various types, ensured solid development of family farms and farmers’ cooperatives, and accelerated the development of commercial services for agriculture. We launched rural development initiatives and continued to improve the rural living environment. We strengthened rural infrastructure such as water, electricity and gas supplies, roads, and mail and communications services. All towns, townships, and villages where conditions permit are now connected by paved roads and linked to bus networks. Tap water coverage in rural areas increased from 80 percent to 87 percent, and the dilapidated houses of more than 24 million rural households were rebuilt over the years. We deepened the reform of supply and marketing cooperatives, collective forest tenure, and state farms. We leveraged local resources to develop rural industries and helped rural residents secure employment, start businesses, and increase their incomes. To ensure that rural migrant workers were paid on time, we worked continuously to solve the problem of wage arrears owed to them, adopted regulations on ensuring their wage payment, and cracked down hard on cases of deliberately withholding wages.
7.We remained committed to opening up wider to the world and expanded international economic and trade cooperation to deliver mutually beneficial outcomes.In response to changes in the external environment, we pursued a more proactive strategy of opening up and worked to boost reform and development with high-standard opening.
推动进出口稳中提质。加大出口退税、信保、信贷等政策支持力度，企业出口退税 办理时间压缩至6个工作日以内。优化外汇服务。发展外贸新业态，新设152个跨境电商 综试区，支持建设一批海外仓。发挥进博会、广交会、服贸会、消博会等重大展会作用。推进通关便利化，进口、出口通关时间分别压减67％和92％，进出口环节合规成本明显 下降。关税总水平从9.8％降至7.4％。全面深化服务贸易创新发展试点，推出跨境服务 贸易负面清单。进出口稳定增长有力支撑了经济发展。
Imports and exports were kept stable, and their quality was improved. We intensified policy support in terms of export tax rebates, credit insurance, and credit loans and cut the time for processing export tax rebates to less than six working days. Foreign exchange services were improved. We developed new forms of foreign trade, built 152 new integrated pilot zones for cross-border e-commerce, and supported the establishment of overseas warehouses. Major trade events such as the China International Import Expo, the China Import and Export Fair, the China International Fair for Trade in Services, and the China International Consumer Products Expo delivered positive results. We simplified customs clearance procedures and reduced the clearance time for imports and exports by 67 percent and 92 percent, respectively, bringing about a significant reduction in related compliance costs. The overall tariff level fell from 9.8 percent to 7.4 percent over the five years. We advanced trials for innovative development of trade in services across the board and adopted the negative list for cross-border trade in services. With steady growth, imports and exports have bolstered China’s economic development.
积极有效利用外资。出台外商投资法实施条例，不断优化外商投资环境。持续放宽 外资市场准入，全国和自由贸易试验区负面清单条数分别压减51％、72％，制造业领域 基本全面放开，金融等服务业开放水平不断提升。已设21个自由贸易试验区，海南自由 贸易港建设稳步推进。各地创新方式加强外资促进服务，加大招商引资和项目对接力度。一批外资大项目落地，我国持续成为外商投资兴业的热土。
We took proactive and effective moves to utilize foreign investment. The regulations for implementing the Foreign Investment Law were issued, further improving the business environment for foreign investors. Market access for foreign investment was also steadily expanded. Items on the negative lists for foreign investment respectively covering the whole country and pilot free trade zones were reduced by 51 percent and 72 percent. The entire manufacturing sector was generally opened up, and opening in finance and other service sectors was continuously enhanced. A total of 21 pilot free trade zones have been established in China, and steady strides have been made in the development of Hainan Free Trade Port. Across all localities, new approaches were developed to strengthen services for promoting foreign investment, and greater efforts were made to attract foreign investment and facilitate project implementation. With a large number of major foreign investment projects launched in our country over the past five years, China has remained a favored destination for overseas investment.
推动高质量共建“一带一路”。坚持共商共建共享，遵循市场原则和国际通行规则， 实施一批互联互通和产能合作项目，对沿线国家货物进出口额年均增长13.4％，各领域 交流合作不断深化。引导对外投资健康有序发展，加强境外风险防控。新签和升级6个 自贸协定，与自贸伙伴货物进出口额占比从26％提升至35％左右。坚定维护多边贸易体 制，反对贸易保护主义，稳妥应对经贸摩擦，促进贸易和投资自由化便利化。
We promoted high-quality Belt and Road cooperation. We remained committed to achieving shared growth through discussion and collaboration, observed market principles and international rules, and carried out a number of projects to boost connectivity and industrial capacity cooperation. Imports and exports between China and other BRI countries increased at an annual rate of 13.4 percent, and exchanges and cooperation between China and these countries registered steady progress in a wide range of areas. We provided guidance which ensured sound and orderly development of outbound investment, and we strengthened overseas risk prevention and control. Six free trade agreements were newly concluded or upgraded; and the share of trade with our free trade partners increased from 26 percent to around 35 percent of China’s total trade volume. We remained firm in upholding the multilateral trading regime and opposed trade protectionism. We properly handled economic and trade frictions and promoted trade and investment liberalization and facilitation.
8.We strengthened environmental protection and pursued green and low-carbon development.Staying true to the idea that lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets, we improved systems of ecological conservation, struck a balance between development and conservation, and steadily built up our capacity for promoting sustainable development.
加强污染治理和生态建设。坚持精准治污、科学治污、依法治污，深入推进污染防 治攻坚。注重多污染物协同治理和区域联防联控，地级及以上城市空气质量优良天数比 例达86.5％、上升4个百分点。基本消除地级及以上城市黑臭水体，推进重要河湖、近 岸海域污染防治。加大土壤污染风险防控和修复力度，强化固体废物和新污染物治理。全面划定耕地和永久基本农田保护红线、生态保护红线和城镇开发边界。坚持山水林田 湖草沙一体化保护和系统治理，实施一批重大生态工程，全面推行河湖长制、林长制。深入实施长江流域重点水域十年禁渔。加强生物多样性保护。完善生态保护补偿制度。森林覆盖率、湿地保护率分别达到24％、50％以上，水土流失、荒漠化、沙化土地面积 分别净减少10.6万、3.8万、3.3万平方公里。人民群众越来越多享受到蓝天白云、绿水 青山。
We strengthened pollution control and ecological conservation. Applying targeted,law-based, and science-driven approaches, we worked harder to prevent and control pollution. We made major efforts to control multiple pollutants in a coordinated way and across all regions. In cities at and above the prefectural level, air quality was good or excellent on 86.5% of the days over the past five years, a 4-percentage-point increase. Black malodorous water bodies in cities at and above the prefectural level were generally cleaned up. We intensified pollution prevention and control for major rivers, lakes, and offshore areas. We also strengthened efforts to prevent and control soil pollution risks and restore polluted soil, and stepped up the treatment of solid waste and new pollutants. We completed the tasks of drawing redlines to protect ecosystems, farmland, and permanent basic cropland and of delineating urban development boundaries. We promoted the conservation and improvement of mountains, waters, forests, farmlands, grasslands, and deserts in a holistic and systematic way. We launched major ecological projects and instituted systems of river, lake, and forest chiefs nationwide. The 10-year ban on fishing in key water bodies of the Yangtze River basin was fully enforced. Biodiversity protection was bolstered, and the system of compensation for ecological conservation was improved. Forest coverage has risen to over 24 percent, and over 50 percent of all wetlands are now under protection. The area of land affected by soil erosion, desertification, and sandification was reduced by 106,000 square kilometers, 38,000 square kilometers, and 33,000 square kilometers, respectively. More and more, our people now enjoy blue skies, clear waters, and lush mountains.
稳步推进节能降碳。统筹能源安全稳定供应和绿色低碳发展，科学有序推进碳达峰 碳中和。优化能源结构，实现超低排放的煤电机组超过10.5亿千瓦，可再生能源装机规 模由6.5亿千瓦增至12亿千瓦以上，清洁能源消费占比由20.8％上升到25％以上。全面 加强资源节约工作，发展绿色产业和循环经济，促进节能环保技术和产品研发应用。加 强绿色发展金融支持。完善能耗考核方式。积极参与应对气候变化国际合作，为推动全 球气候治理作出了中国贡献。
We made steady progress in energy conservation and carbon reduction. We both ensured a stable and secure energy supply and promoted green and low-carbon development. We worked toward the targets of peak carbon emissions and carbon neutrality with well-conceived and systematic steps. The energy mix was further improved. Coal-fired generators with a total capacity of over 1.05 billion kilowatts achieved ultra-low emissions. Installed capacity of renewable power increased from 650 million kilowatts to more than 1.2 billion kilowatts. The share of clean energy in total energy consumption increased from 20.8 percent to over 25 percent. We made an all-embracing push to promote resource conservation, developed green sectors and a circular economy, and encouraged R&D and application of energy-saving and environmental protection technologies and products. Financial support for green development was scaled up. Improvements were made to performance evaluations for energy consumption targets. Internationally, China played an active part in cooperation on addressing climate change, contributing its part to global climate governance.
（九）切实保障和改善民生，加快社会事业发展。贯彻以人民为中心的发展思想， 持续增加民生投入，着力保基本、兜底线、促公平，提升公共服务水平，在发展中不断 增进民生福祉。
9.We took concrete steps to ensure and improve the people’s wellbeing and accelerated the development of social programs.Acting on a people-centered philosophy of development, we continued to increase inputs in areas important to people’s wellbeing, meet people’s basic needs, provide a cushion for those most in need, and promote social fairness. We delivered higher-quality public services and continued to improve the wellbeing of our people through development.
促进教育公平和质量提升。百年大计，教育为本。财政性教育经费占国内生产总值 比例每年都保持在4％以上，学生人均经费投入大幅增加。持续加强农村义务教育薄弱 环节建设，基本消除城镇大班额，推动解决进城务工人员子女入学问题，义务教育巩固 率由93.8％提高到95.5％。坚持义务教育由国家统一实施，引导规范民办教育发展。减 轻义务教育阶段学生负担。持续实施营养改善计划，每年惠及3700多万学生。保障教师 特别是乡村教师工资待遇。多渠道增加幼儿园供给。普及高中阶段教育目标实现。职业 教育适应性增强，职业院校办学条件持续改善。积极稳妥推进高考综合改革，高等教育 毛入学率从45.7％提高到59.6％，高校招生持续加大对中西部地区和农村地区倾斜力度。大幅提高经济困难高校学生国家助学贷款额度。深入实施“强基计划”和基础学科拔尖 人才培养计划，建设288个基础学科拔尖学生培养基地，接续推进世界一流大学和一流 学科建设，不断夯实发展的人才基础。
We developed more equitable and higher-quality education. Education is pivotal to the enduring prosperity of a country. We kept annual budgetary spending on education at over 4 percent of GDP and realized a significant increase in spending per student. We steadily intensified efforts to shore up weak links in rural compulsory education, largely resolved the problem of oversized classes in urban schools, and made strides in providing schooling for children of rural migrant workers in cities. The retention rate in nine-year compulsory education rose from 93.8 percent to 95.5 percent. We saw to it that compulsory education was provided as an overall state responsibility; and we guided and regulated the development of private schools. The burden on students in compulsory education was reduced. The nutrition improvement program was continued, benefiting over 37 million students every year. We ensured that teachers, especially those in rural schools, received their pay packages in full.The provision of preschool education was increased through multiple channels. The goal of universal senior secondary education was attained. Vocational education was made more adaptable, and conditions in vocational schools were steadily improved. We took active yet prudent steps to advance comprehensive reform of the college entrance examination system and raised the gross enrollment ratio for higher education from 45.7 percent to 59.6 percent. Universities and colleges continued to enroll more students from central and western regions and rural areas. The cap was significantly raised for government-subsidized loans to college students from families with financial difficulties. We launched a plan that enables institutions of higher learning to recruit students who excel in basic academic disciplines, as well as a plan to cultivate top talent in basic disciplines. We opened 288 training centers for high-performing students in basic disciplines and continued to develop world-class universities and world-class disciplines. By doing so, we have laid a solid foundation for talent development.
提升医疗卫生服务能力。深入推进健康中国行动，深化医药卫生体制改革，把基本 医疗卫生制度作为公共产品向全民提供，进一步缓解群众看病难、看病贵问题。持续提 高基本医保和大病保险水平，城乡居民医保人均财政补助标准从450元提高到610元。将 更多群众急需药品纳入医保报销范围。住院和门诊费用实现跨省直接结算，惠及5700多 万人次。推行药品和医用耗材集中带量采购，降低费用负担超过4000亿元。设置13个国 家医学中心，布局建设76个国家区域医疗中心。全面推开公立医院综合改革，持续提升 县域医疗卫生服务能力，完善分级诊疗体系。促进中医药传承创新发展。基本公共卫生 服务经费人均财政补助标准从50元提高到84元。改革完善疾病预防控制体系，组建国家 疾病预防控制局，健全重大疫情防控救治和应急物资保障体系，努力保障人民健康。
Our ability to provide medical and health services was enhanced. We pressed ahead with the Healthy China initiative and deepened the reform of medical and healthcare systems. We made basic medical and healthcare services available to the entire population as a public good and made it easier and more affordable for people to access medical treatment.Benefits under the basic medical insurance and serious disease insurance schemes continued to grow, and annual per capita government subsidies for basic medical insurance for rural and non-working urban residents increased from 450 yuan to 610 yuan. A greater number of urgently needed medicines were approved for reimbursement under the basic medical insurance scheme. On-the-spot settlement of cross-provincial outpatient and inpatient medical bills was realized, with over 57 million applications for settlement approved. We made bulk government purchases of medicines and medical consumables, thus cutting medical bills by more than 400 billion yuan. Thirteen national medical research centers and 76 regional medical centers were opened. Comprehensive reform of public hospitals was carried out across the board, the capacity for providing medical and health services at the county level was steadily increased, and the tiered diagnosis and treatment system was refined. The preservation and innovative development of traditional Chinese medicine was promoted. Annual per capita government subsidies for basic public health services were increased from 50 yuan to 84 yuan. We reformed and improved the system for disease prevention and control. The National Administration of Disease Prevention and Control was inaugurated, and the systems for major epidemic prevention, control, and treatment and for providing emergency supplies were improved. With these efforts, we have protected the health of our people.
加强社会保障和服务。建立基本养老保险基金中央调剂制度，连续上调退休人员基 本养老金，提高城乡居民基础养老金最低标准，稳步提升城乡低保、优待抚恤、失业和 工伤保障等标准。积极应对人口老龄化，推动老龄事业和养老产业发展。发展社区和居 家养老服务，在税费、用房、水电气价格等方面给予政策支持。推进医养结合。实施三 孩生育政策及配套支持措施。完善退役军人管理保障制度，提高保障水平。加强妇女、 儿童权益保障。健全残疾人关爱服务体系。健全社会救助体系，加强低收入人口动态监 测，对遇困人员及时给予帮扶，年均临时救助1100万人次，坚决兜住了困难群众基本生 活保障网。
We improved social security and social services. A central regulation system for basic old-age insurance funds was set up. We increased basic pension benefits for retirees for several years running and raised the minimum basic old-age benefits for rural and non-working urban residents. Urban and rural subsistence allowances, benefits for entitled groups, unemployment insurance, and workers’ compensation were steadily increased. We took proactive steps to address population aging and promoted development of both elderly care programs and elderly care services. We encouraged the development of community and at-home elderly care services by offering policy support in terms of tax, rent, and charges for water, electricity, and natural gas. Integrated medical and elderly care services were promoted. The three-child policy was launched, and supporting measures were put into effect. We refined the system of management and support for ex-service members and provided them with better services and benefits. The rights and interests of women and children were better protected. The system for supporting and caring for people with disabilities was improved.We also improved the social assistance system, strengthened ongoing monitoring for low-income groups, and provided people in difficulty with prompt assistance. Temporary assistance was provided 11 million times on average each year. With these efforts, we have firmly secured the safety net for meeting the basic needs of people in difficulty.
丰富人民群众精神文化生活。培育和践行社会主义核心价值观。深化群众性精神文 明创建。发展新闻出版、广播影视、文学艺术、哲学社会科学和档案等事业，加强智库 建设。扎实推进媒体深度融合。提升国际传播效能。加强和创新互联网内容建设。弘扬 中华优秀传统文化，加强文物和文化遗产保护传承。实施文化惠民工程，公共图书馆、 博物馆、美术馆、文化馆站向社会免费开放。深入推进全民阅读。支持文化产业发展。加强国家科普能力建设。体育健儿勇创佳绩，全民健身广泛开展。
People’s intellectual and cultural lives were enriched. Core socialist values were fostered and observed. Public initiatives were launched to promote cultural and ethical advancement. The press and publishing, radio, film, and television, literature and art, philosophy and social sciences, and archiving as well as other undertakings were developed. Think tanks were strengthened. Solid steps were taken to promote in-depth integrated development of media. Communication with international audiences was improved. New ways were created to enhance online content development. Fine traditional Chinese culture was kept alive and thrived, and China’s cultural artifacts and cultural heritage were better protected and preserved. Cultural projects were launched to benefit the public, and public libraries, museums, art galleries, and cultural centers were opened to the public free of charge. We continued to foster a love of reading among our people, supported the development of the cultural sector, and promoted scientific literacy. Chinese athletes excelled in competition; extensive Fitness-for-All activities were carried out.
（十）推进政府依法履职和治理创新，保持社会大局稳定。加强法治政府建设，使 经济社会活动更好在法治轨道上运行。坚持依法行政、大道为公，严格规范公正文明执 法，政府的权力来自人民，有权不可任性，用权必受监督。推动完善法律法规和规章制 度，提请全国人大常委会审议法律议案50件，制定修订行政法规180件次。依法接受同 级人大及其常委会的监督，自觉接受人民政协的民主监督，主动接受社会和舆论监督。认真办理人大代表建议和政协委员提案。加强审计、统计监督。持续深化政务公开。开 展国务院大督查。支持工会、共青团、妇联等群团组织更好发挥作用。
10.We continued to perform government functions in accordance with the law and develop new ways of conducting governance and ensured social stability. We stepped up efforts to develop a law-based government and ensured economic and social activities were carried out in compliance with the law. We exercised law-based government administration, served the common good of all, and saw that the law was enforced in a strict, procedure-based, impartial, and non-abusive way. The power of the government comes from the people; it should not be wielded as one pleases and the exercise of power must be subject to supervision.We worked to improve laws, regulations and rules, submitted 50 legislative proposals to the Standing Committee of the NPC for deliberation, and formulated or revised 180 sets of administrative regulations. We in governments at all levels, in compliance with the law, subjected ourselves to the oversight of people’s congresses and their standing committees at the corresponding level and readily submitted to the democratic oversight of the CPPCC, public oversight, and oversight through public opinion. We handled with careful attention recommendations from NPC deputies and proposals by CPPCC National Committee members. We also strengthened oversight based on audits and statistics. We continued to make government affairs more transparent. Accountability inspections were carried out by the State Council. We supported trade unions, Communist Youth League organizations, women’s federations, and other people’s organizations in better playing their roles.
加强和创新社会治理。推动市域社会治理现代化，完善基层治理，优化社区服务。支持社会组织、人道救助、社会工作、志愿服务、公益慈善等健康发展。深入推进信访 积案化解。推进社会信用体系建设。完善公共法律服务体系。严格食品药品疫苗监管。开展安全生产专项整治。改革和加强应急管理，提高防灾减灾救灾能力，做好洪涝干旱、 森林草原火灾、地质灾害、地震等防御和气象服务。深入推进国家安全体系和能力建设。持续加强社会治安综合治理，严厉打击各类违法犯罪，开展扫黑除恶专项斗争，依法严 惩黑恶势力及其“保护伞”，平安中国、法治中国建设取得新进展。
We developed new and better forms of social governance. We advanced the modernization of urban social governance, improved primary-level governance, and provided better community services. We supported the sound development of social organizations, humanitarian assistance, social work, volunteer services, public welfare, charitable initiatives, and other related services. We made headway in clearing the backlog of public complaint cases. We advanced the development of the social credit system, improved the public legal service system, and tightened supervision over food, drugs, and vaccines. An initiative to enhance workplace safety was launched. We reformed and strengthened emergency management, enhanced our capacity for disaster prevention, mitigation, and relief, effectively protected against floods, droughts, forest and grassland fires, geological disasters, and earthquakes, and provided quality meteorological services. We made further progress in building up the national security system and capabilities. We continued to take a full range of measures to maintain law and order, cracked down hard on illegal and criminal activities of all types, and launched campaigns to combat organized crime and handed out severe punishments, in accordance with the law, to criminal gangs and those who provided protection for them, thus making fresh headway in building a peaceful China and advancing the rule of law in China.
五年来，各级政府认真贯彻落实党中央全面从严治党战略部署，扎实开展“不忘初 心、牢记使命”主题教育和党史学习教育，弘扬伟大建党精神，严格落实中央八项规定 精神，持之以恒纠治“四风”，重点纠治形式主义、官僚主义，“三公”经费大幅压减。严厉惩处违规建设楼堂馆所和偷税逃税等行为。加强廉洁政府建设.政府工作人员自觉 接受法律监督、监察监督和人民监督。
Over the past five years, we in governments at all levels faithfully implemented the Party Central Committee’s strategic plans for full and rigorous Party self-governance, launched both initiatives to raise awareness of the need to stay true to the Party’s founding mission and programs to study the Party’s history, and carried forward the great founding spirit of the Party. We strictly complied with the central Party leadership’s eight-point decision on improving work conduct and kept up our efforts to tackle pointless formalities, bureaucratism, hedonism, and extravagance, with emphasis on the first two. Spending on official overseas visits, vehicles for official use, and official hospitality was slashed. We resolutely investigated and strictly dealt with instances of constructing government buildings in breach of regulations and cases of tax evasion. Greater efforts were made to build a government of integrity. All of us in government have readily placed ourselves under the oversight of the law, supervisory bodies, and the people.
做好经济社会发展工作，没有捷径，实干为要。五年来，坚持以习近平新时代中国 特色社会主义思想为指导，全面贯彻党的基本理论、基本路线、基本方略。坚持以经济 建设为中心，着力推动高质量发展，事不畏难、行不避艰，要求以实干践行承诺，凝心 聚力抓发展；以民之所望为施政所向，始终把人民放在心中最高位置，一切以人民利益 为重，仔细倾听群众呼声，深入了解群众冷暖，着力解决人民群众急难愁盼问题；坚持 实事求是，尊重客观规律，坚决反对空谈浮夸、做表面文章、搞形象工程甚至盲目蛮干；以改革的办法、锲而不舍的精神解难题、激活力，激励敢于担当，对庸政懒政者问责。尊重人民群众首创精神，充分调动各方面积极性，进而汇聚起推动发展的强大力量。
There is no shortcut to achieving economic and social development; only solid work will deliver it. Over these five years, we followed the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era and fully implemented the Party’s basic theory, basic line, and basic policy. Taking economic development as our central task, We strived to pursue high-quality development, tackled challenges and difficulties head-on, fulfilled our commitments with solid work, and made concerted efforts to promote development. We took meeting the people’s expectations as the goal of our governance, always kept the people uppermost in our minds, and put their interests above all else. We fully heeded their views, endeavored to gain a full understanding of their needs, and spared no effort to solve the pressing difficulties and problems that concerned them most.We adhered to the principle of seeking truth from facts, with full respect for objective laws, and resolutely opposed empty talk and boastfulness, window dressing, vanity projects, and rash and reckless moves. By carrying out reform and making unremitting efforts, we resolved problems and fostered vitality. We applauded those who lived up to their responsibilities and held to full account those who were incompetent and indolent. We respected the pioneering spirit of the people and kept all motivated, thus creating a powerful force for advancing development.
过去五年，民族、宗教、侨务等工作创新完善。巩固和发展平等团结互助和谐的社 会主义民族关系，民族团结进步呈现新气象。贯彻党的宗教工作基本方针，推进我国宗 教中国化逐步深入。持续做好侨务工作，充分发挥海外侨胞在参与祖国现代化建设中的 独特优势和重要作用。
Over the past five years, we created new ways to improve work related to ethnic groups, religious affairs, and overseas Chinese. We consolidated and developed socialist ethnic relations featuring equality, unity, mutual assistance, and harmony, with fresh headway achieved in ethnic solidarity and progress. We implemented the Party’s basic policy on religious affairs and saw that religions in China further adapted to the Chinese context. We continued to improve our work on overseas Chinese affairs, thus giving full play to the unique strengths and important role of overseas Chinese nationals in China’s modernization drive.
坚持党对人民军队的绝对领导，国防和军队建设取得一系列新的重大成就、发生一 系列重大变革。人民军队深入推进政治建军、改革强军、科技强军、人才强军、依法治 军，深入推进练兵备战，现代化水平和实战能力显著提升。坚定灵活开展军事斗争，有 效遂行边防斗争、海上维权、反恐维稳、抢险救灾、抗击疫情、维和护航等重大任务， 提升国防动员能力，有力维护了国家主权、安全、发展利益。
We remained committed to the Party’s absolute leadership over the people’s armed forces.A series of major achievements were made in national defense and military development. As a result, a number of significant changes took place in this domain. The people’s armed forces intensified efforts to enhance their political loyalty, to strengthen themselves through reform, scientific and technological advances, and personnel training, and to practice law-based governance. They stepped up military training, increased combat preparedness, and became a much more modernized and capable fighting force. They carried out operations in a firm and flexible way; and they effectively conducted major missions relating to border defense, maritime rights protection, counterterrorism and stability maintenance, disaster rescue and relief, Covid-19 response, peacekeeping, and merchant ship escorting. Our national defense mobilization capability was boosted. With these efforts, we fully safeguarded China’s sovereignty, security, and development interests.
港澳台工作取得新进展。依照宪法和基本法有效实施对特别行政区的全面管治权， 制定实施香港特别行政区维护国家安全法，落实“爱国者治港”、“爱国者治澳”原则， 推动香港进入由乱到治走向由治及兴的新阶段。深入推进粤港澳大湾区建设，支持港澳 发展经济、改善民生、防控疫情、保持稳定。贯彻新时代党解决台湾问题的总体方略， 坚决开展反分裂、反干涉重大斗争，持续推动两岸关系和平发展。
We made fresh progress in work related to Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan. We exercised effective overall jurisdiction over the two special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macao in accordance with China’s Constitution and the basic laws of the two regions, formulated and put into effect the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Safeguarding National Security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, and applied the principle that Hong Kong and Macao should be administered by patriots. We have ensured that Hong Kong has entered a new stage in which it has restored order and is set to thrive. We promoted the development of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area and supported Hong Kong and Macao in developing their economies, improving living standards, responding to Covid-19, and maintaining stability. We implemented the Party’s overall policy for the new era on resolving the Taiwan question and resolutely fought against separatism and countered interference. We continued efforts to promote the peaceful development of cross-Strait relations.
中国特色大国外交全面推进。习近平主席等党和国家领导人出访多国，通过线上和 线下方式出席二十国集团领导人峰会、亚太经合组织领导人非正式会议、联合国成立75 周年系列高级别会议、东亚合作领导人系列会议、中欧领导人会晤等一系列重大外交活 动。成功举办上合组织青岛峰会、金砖国家领导人会晤、全球发展高层对话会、“一带 一路”国际合作高峰论坛、中非合作论坛北京峰会等多场重大主场外交活动。坚持敢于 斗争、善于斗争，坚决维护我国主权、安全、发展利益。积极拓展全球伙伴关系，致力 于建设开放型世界经济，维护多边主义，推动构建人类命运共同体。中国作为负责任大 国，在推进国际抗疫合作、解决全球性挑战和地区热点问题上发挥了重要建设性作用， 为促进世界和平与发展作出重要贡献。
We conducted major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics on all fronts.President Xi Jinping and other Party and state leaders visited many countries and attended, online or offline, many major diplomatic events, including G20 summits, APEC economic leaders’ meetings, high-level meetings commemorating the 75th anniversary of the United Nations, the East Asia leaders’ meetings on cooperation, and China-EU summits. China also hosted a number of major diplomatic events, including the Qingdao Summit of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the 14th BRICS Summit, the High-Level Dialogue on Global Development, the first and second Belt and Road forums for international cooperation, and the Beijing Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation. With courage and ability to stand our ground, we resolutely safeguarded China’s sovereignty, security, and development interests. We actively expanded global partnerships, worked to build an open world economy, safeguarded multilateralism, and promoted the building of a human community with a shared future. As a responsible major country, China played significant and constructive roles in enhancing international Covid-19 cooperation and addressing global challenges and regional hotspot issues, thus making important contributions to global peace and development.
这些年我国发展取得的成就，是以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导的结果，是 习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想科学指引的结果，是全党全军全国各族人民团结奋 斗的结果。我代表国务院，向全国各族人民，向各民主党派、各人民团体和各界人士， 表示诚挚感谢！向香港特别行政区同胞、澳门特别行政区同胞、台湾同胞和海外侨胞， 表示诚挚感谢！向关心和支持中国现代化建设的各国政府、国际组织和各国朋友，表示 诚挚感谢！
We owe our achievements in these five years to the strong leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, the sound guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, and the concerted efforts of the whole Party, the armed forces, and Chinese people of all ethnic groups. On behalf of the State Council, I would like to express sincere gratitude to all our people, and to all other political parties, people’s organizations, and public figures from all sectors of society. I express heartfelt appreciation to our fellow countrymen and women in the Hong Kong and Macao special administrative regions, in Taiwan, and overseas. I would also like to express heartfelt thanks to the governments of other countries, international organizations, and friends across the world who have shown understanding and support for us in China as we pursue modernization.
在看到发展成就的同时，我们也清醒认识到，我国是一个发展中大国，仍处于社会 主义初级阶段，发展不平衡不充分问题仍然突出。当前发展面临诸多困难挑战。外部环 境不确定性加大，全球通胀仍处于高位，世界经济和贸易增长动能减弱，外部打压遏制 不断上升。国内经济增长企稳向上基础尚需巩固，需求不足仍是突出矛盾，民间投资和 民营企业预期不稳，中小微企业和个体工商户有不少困难，稳就业任务艰巨，一些基层 财政收支矛盾较大。房地产市场风险隐患较多，一些中小金融机构风险暴露。发展仍有 不少体制机制障碍。科技创新能力还不强。生态环境保护任重道远。防灾减灾等城乡基 础设施仍有明显薄弱环节。一些民生领域存在不少短板。形式主义、官僚主义现象仍较 突出，有的地方政策执行“一刀切”、层层加码，有的干部不作为、乱作为、单打一， 存在脱离实际、违背群众意愿、漠视群众合法权益等问题。一些领域、行业、地方腐败 现象时有发生。人民群众对政府工作还有一些意见和建议应予重视。要直面问题挑战， 尽心竭力改进政府工作，不负人民重托。
While recognizing our achievements, we are keenly aware that China is still a large, developing country. It remains in the primary stage of socialism with prominent imbalances and inadequacies in its development. Today, many difficulties and challenges still confront us. Uncertainties in the external environment are on the rise. Global inflation remains high, global economic and trade growth is losing steam, and external attempts to suppress and contain China are escalating. At home, the foundation for stable growth needs to be consolidated, insufficient demand remains a pronounced problem, and the expectations of private investors and businesses are unstable. MSMEs and self-employed individuals face multiple difficulties in business and production operations. The task of maintaining employment stability is challenging, and the budgetary imbalances of some local governments are substantial. There are many risks and hidden dangers in the real estate market. The operating risks of some small and medium financial institutions have been exposed.There are still many institutional barriers hindering development. Our capacity for scientific and technological innovation needs to be further improved. We still have a long way to go in protecting the environment. There are still major weak links in urban and rural infrastructure for disaster prevention and mitigation and other purposes. Weak links also persist in areas important to the people’s lives.Pointless formalities and bureaucratism remain acute issues. Some local governments have used one-size-fits-all approaches or taken excessive measures when implementing policies. Some officials fail to fulfill their duties, act arbitrarily, or have a narrow focus in work. Some are detached from reality, go against the public will, or disregard the legitimate rights and interests of the people. Corruption remains a common problem in some fields, sectors, and localities. Regarding government work, the people have expressed some views and suggestions which deserve our full attention.We must face these problems and challenges squarely, make every effort to make improvements, and do all we can to live up to the people’s trust.
II.Recommendations for the Work of Government in 2023
今年是全面贯彻党的二十大精神的开局之年。做好政府工作，要在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下，以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导，全面贯彻落 实党的二十大精神，按照中央经济工作会议部署，扎实推进中国式现代化，坚持稳中求 进工作总基调，完整、准确、全面贯彻新发展理念，加快构建新发展格局，着力推动高 质量发展，更好统筹国内国际两个大局，更好统筹疫情防控和经济社会发展，更好统筹 发展和安全，全面深化改革开放，大力提振市场信心，把实施扩大内需战略同深化供给 侧结构性改革有机结合起来，突出做好稳增长、稳就业、稳物价工作，有效防范化解重 大风险，推动经济运行整体好转，实现质的有效提升和量的合理增长，持续改善民生， 保持社会大局稳定，为全面建设社会主义现代化国家开好局起好步。
This year is the first year for fully implementing the guiding principles from the Party’s 20th National Congress. For the government to deliver, it is important, under the strong leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, to do the following: follow the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era; implement the guiding principles from the Party’s 20th National Congress; act on the guidelines of the Central Economic Work Conference; make solid progress in advancing Chinese modernization; act on the general principle of pursuing progress while ensuring stability; fully and faithfully apply the new development philosophy on all fronts and move faster to create a new pattern of development; promote high-quality development; give full consideration to both domestic and international imperatives; respond to Covid-19 and pursue economic and social development in a more coordinated way; better ensure development and security; deepen reform and opening up in all respects; boost market confidence; pursue the strategy of expanding domestic demand and deepen supply-side structural reform; give priority to ensuring stable growth, employment, and prices; effectively prevent and defuse major risks; promote a full economic recovery; effectively pursue higher-quality growth and appropriately increase economic output; keep working to improve people’s lives; and maintain overall social stability. These efforts will set the stage for building a modern socialist country in all respects.
今年发展主要预期目标是：国内生产总值增长5％左右；城镇新增就业1200万人左右， 城镇调查失业率5.5％左右；居民消费价格涨幅3％左右；居民收入增长与经济增长基本 同步；进出口促稳提质，国际收支基本平衡；粮食产量保持在1.3万亿斤以上；单位国 内生产总值能耗和主要污染物排放量继续下降，重点控制化石能源消费，生态环境质量 稳定改善。
The main projected targets for development this year are as follows:
•GDP growth of around 5 percent;
•around 12 million new urban jobs;
•surveyed urban unemployment rate of around 5.5 percent;
•CPI increase of around 3 percent;
•growth in personal income that is generally in step with economic growth;
•steady increases in both the volume and quality of imports and exports;
•a basic equilibrium in the balance of payments;
•grain output of over 650 million metric tons;
•continued reductions in energy consumption per unit of GDP and in the discharge of major pollutants, with priority on controlling fossil fuel consumption; and
•steady improvements in the quality of the eco-environment.
要坚持稳字当头、稳中求进，保持政策连续性针对性，加强各类政策协调配合，形 成共促高质量发展合力。积极的财政政策要加力提效。赤字率拟按3％安排。完善税费 优惠政策，对现行减税降费、退税缓税等措施，该延续的延续，该优化的优化。做好基 层“三保”工作。稳健的货币政策要精准有力。保持广义货币供应量和社会融资规模增 速同名义经济增速基本匹配，支持实体经济发展。保持人民币汇率在合理均衡水平上的 基本稳定。产业政策要发展和安全并举。促进传统产业改造升级，培育壮大战略性新兴 产业，着力补强产业链薄弱环节。科技政策要聚焦自立自强。完善新型举国体制，发挥 好政府在关键核心技术攻关中的组织作用，突出企业科技创新主体地位。社会政策要兜 牢民生底线。落实落细就业优先政策，把促进青年特别是高校毕业生就业工作摆在更加 突出的位置，切实保障好基本民生。
This year, it is essential to prioritize economic stability and pursue progress while ensuring stability. Policies should be kept consistent and targeted, and they should be carried out in more coordinated way to create synergy for high-quality development. We should enhance the intensity and effectiveness of our proactive fiscal policy. A deficit-to-GDP ratio of 3 percent has been projected for this year. We should improve preferential tax and fee policies, and extend and further refine policies on tax and fee cuts, tax rebates, and tax deferrals as the situation requires. We should see that at the primary level, basic living needs are met, salary payments are ensured, and normal government functioning is maintained.We should do more to implement a prudent monetary policy in a targeted way. The M2 money supply and aggregate financing should increase generally in step with nominal economic growth to provide support for the real economy. The RMB exchange rate should be kept generally stable at an adaptive, balanced level. In adopting industrial policies, we should give consideration to both development and security imperatives. We should promote the transformation and upgrading of traditional industries, cultivate and strengthen strategic emerging industries, and take forceful steps to shore up weak links in industrial chains. Scientific and technological policies should aim at building up our country’s strength and self-reliance in science and technology. The new system for mobilizing resources nationwide should be improved, we should better leverage the role of the government in pooling resources to make key technological breakthroughs, and enterprises should be the principal actors in innovation. Social policies should meet basic living needs. To effectively ensure people’s basic wellbeing, we should take concrete measures to fully implement the employment-first policy and place a higher priority on promoting the employment of young people, particularly college graduates.
当前我国疫情防控已进入“乙类乙管”常态化防控阶段，要更加科学、精准、高效 做好防控工作，围绕保健康、防重症，重点做好老年人、儿童、患基础性疾病群体的疫 情防控和医疗救治，推进疫苗迭代升级和新药研制，切实保障群众就医用药需求，守护 好人民生命安全和身体健康。
China has entered a phase of regular Covid-19 response, in which prevention and control measures for Class B infectious diseases are applied. We must ensure our response is well-conceived, more targeted, and more effective. We should protect people’s health and prevent severe cases, with an emphasis on prevention and treatment for the elderly, children, and people with underlying medical conditions. Covid-19 vaccines should be upgraded and new drugs should be developed. We should ensure people’s access to medicines and medical services to protect their lives and health.
This year, a new central government leadership will be elected. Going forward, the work outlined in the previous section of this report relating to economic and social development must be pushed forward with relentless efforts. I would now like to brief you on several key priorities.
1.Expanding domestic demand.
把恢复和扩大消费摆在优先位置。多渠道增加城乡居民 收入。稳定大宗消费，推动生活服务消费恢复。政府投资和政策激励要有效带动全社会 投资，今年拟安排地方政府专项债券3.8万亿元，加快实施“十四五”重大工程，实施 城市更新行动，促进区域优势互补、各展其长，鼓励和吸引更多民间资本参与国家重大 工程和补短板项目建设，激发民间投资活力。
We should give priority to the recovery and expansion of consumption. The incomes of urban and rural residents should be boosted through multiple channels. We should stabilize spending on big-ticket items and promote recovery in consumption of consumer services. We should see that government investment and policy incentives effectively drive investment society-wide. It is proposed that 3.8 trillion yuan be allocated for special-purpose bonds for local governments this year. Implementation of major projects set out in the 14th Five-Year Plan will be sped up. Urban renewal projects should also be launched. We should promote complementary development between regions and see that each region fully leverages its strengths. We should encourage and attract more private capital into major state projects and projects aimed at addressing areas of weakness in order to stimulate private investment.
2.Accelerating the modernization of the industrial system.
围绕制造业重点产业链，集中优质资源合力推进 关键核心技术攻关。加强重要能源、矿产资源国内勘探开发和增储上产。加快传统产业 和中小企业数字化转型，着力提升高端化、智能化、绿色化水平。加快前沿技术研发和 应用推广。完善现代物流体系。大力发展数字经济，提升常态化监管水平，支持平台经 济发展。
We should, with a focus on key industrial chains in the manufacturing sector pool quality resources and make concerted efforts to achieve breakthroughs in core technologies in key fields. We should redouble efforts to explore and develop important energy and mineral resources, discover more reserves, and boost production. We should speed up the digitalization of traditional industries and SMEs to make them higher-end, smarter, and more eco-friendly. R&D and application of cutting-edge technologies should be accelerated. We should improve the modern logistics system. We should strive to develop the digital economy, step up regular oversight, and support the development of the platform economy.
3.Unswervingly consolidating and developing the public sector and unswervingly encouraging, supporting, and guiding the development of the non-public sector.
深化国资国企改革，提高国企核心竞争力。坚 持分类改革方向，处理好国企经济责任和社会责任关系，完善中国特色国有企业现代公 司治理。依法保护民营企业产权和企业家权益，鼓励支持民营经济和民营企业发展壮大， 支持中小微企业和个体工商户发展，构建亲清政商关系，为各类所有制企业创造公平竞 争、竞相发展的环境，用真招实策提振市场预期和信心。
We should deepen reform of state-owned capital and SOEs and enhance the core competitiveness of SOEs. We should continue with a category-based approach to reform and see that SOEs fulfill both their economic and social responsibilities and that they improve their modern corporate governance with distinctive Chinese features. We should, in accordance with the law, protect the property rights of private enterprises and the rights and interests of entrepreneurs. We should encourage and support the private sector and private businesses in growing and expanding and support MSMEs and self-employed individuals in business development. We should cultivate a cordial and clean relationship between government and business and create an environment in which enterprises under all forms of ownership can compete and grow on a level playing field. Effective measures and policies should be rolled out to boost market expectations and confidence.
4.Intensifying efforts to attract and utilize foreign investment.
扩大市场准入，加大现代服务业领域开放力度。落实好外资企业国民待遇。积极推动加入全面与进步跨太平洋伙伴关系协定（CPTPP） 等高标准经贸协议，主动对照相关规则、规制、管理、标准，稳步扩大制度型开放。继 续发挥进出口对经济的支撑作用。做好外资企业服务工作，推动外资标志性项目落地建 设。开放的中国大市场，一定能为各国企业在华发展提供更多机遇。
We should expand market access and continue to open up the modern services sector. We should ensure national treatment for foreign-funded companies. We should take active steps to see China join the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP) and accede to other high-standard economic and trade agreements, and steadily expand institutional opening up by proactively adopting relevant rules, regulations, management, and standards. We should continue to leverage the role of imports and exports in driving economic growth. We should improve services for foreign-funded companies and facilitate the launch of landmark foreign-funded projects. With a vast and open market, China is sure to provide even greater business opportunities for foreign companies in China.
5.Effectively preventing and defusing major economic and financial risks.
深化金融体制改革，完善金融监管，压实 各方责任，防止形成区域性、系统性金融风险。有效防范化解优质头部房企风险，改善 资产负债状况，防止无序扩张，促进房地产业平稳发展。防范化解地方政府债务风险， 优化债务期限结构，降低利息负担，遏制增量、化解存量。
We need to deepen reform of the financial system, improve financial regulation, and see that all those involved assume their full responsibilities to guard against regional and systemic financial risks. We should ensure effective risk prevention and mitigation in high-quality, leading real estate enterprises, help them improve debt-to-asset ratios, and prevent unregulated expansion in the real estate market to promote stable development of the real estate sector. To prevent and defuse local government debt risks, we should improve the mix of debt maturities, reduce the burden of interest payments, and prevent a build-up of new debts while working to reduce existing ones.
6.Stabilizing grain output and advancing rural revitalization.
稳定粮食播种面积，抓好油料生产，实施新 一轮千亿斤粮食产能提升行动。完善农资保供稳价应对机制。加强农田水利和高标准农 田等基础设施建设。深入实施种业振兴行动。强化农业科技和装备支撑。发展乡村特色 产业，拓宽农民增收致富渠道。巩固拓展脱贫攻坚成果，坚决防止出现规模性返贫。推 进乡村建设行动。国家关于土地承包期再延长30年的政策，务必通过细致工作扎实到位。
We should keep total grain acreage at a stable level, promote the production of oilseed crops, and launch a new drive to increase grain production capacity by 50 million metric tons. We should improve contingency plans for ensuring the provision of agricultural supplies at stable prices. We should ramp up the development of high-standard cropland, facilities for irrigation and water conservancy, and other agricultural infrastructure. We should invigorate the seed industry and support the development of agricultural science, technology, and equipment.Rural industries with local features should be fostered to create more channels for increasing rural incomes. Our achievements in poverty alleviation should be consolidated and expanded to prevent large-scale relapse into poverty. Rural development initiatives should be advanced. We must meticulously and effectively carry out work related to the extension of rural land contracts for an additional 30 years.
7.Continuing the transition to green development
深入推进环境污染防治。加强城乡环境基础设施建 设，持续实施重要生态系统保护和修复重大工程。推进煤炭清洁高效利用和技术研发， 加快建设新型能源体系。完善支持绿色发展的政策，发展循环经济，推进资源节约集约 利用，推动重点领域节能降碳，持续打好蓝天、碧水、净土保卫战。
Pollution prevention and control should be intensified. We should improve urban-rural environmental infrastructure and continue to implement major projects for protecting and restoring key ecosystems. We should promote R&D for the clean and efficient use of coal and move faster to develop a new energy system.We should improve policies for green development, develop the circular economy, promote efficient and intensive use of resources, advance energy conservation and carbon reduction in key areas, and continue working to keep our skies blue, waters clear, and lands clean.
8.Meeting people’s basic living needs and developing social programs
加强住房保障体系建设，支持刚性和改善性 住房需求，解决好新市民、青年人等住房问题。推进义务教育优质均衡发展和城乡一体 化，大力发展职业教育，推进高等教育创新。推动优质医疗资源扩容下沉和区域均衡布 局。加强养老服务保障，完善生育支持政策体系。保障妇女、儿童、老年人、残疾人合 法权益。做好军人军属、退役军人和其他优抚对象优待抚恤工作。繁荣发展文化事业和 产业。提升社会治理效能。强化安全生产监管和防灾减灾救灾。全面贯彻总体国家安全 观，建设更高水平的平安中国。
We should improve the housing support system, support people in buying their first homes or improving their housing situation, and help resolve the housing problems of new urban residents and young people.We should promote high-quality, balanced development and urban-rural integration of compulsory education, intensify efforts to develop vocational education, and continue to explore new ground in higher education. We should see that more quality medical resources are channeled toward the community level and more evenly distributed among regions.We need to improve elderly care services and refine supporting policies on childbirth. We should protect the legitimate rights and interests of women, children, the elderly, and people with disabilities. We should see that service members and their families, ex-service members, and other entitled groups receive the benefits and subsidies they are entitled to.We should develop cultural programs and the cultural sector. We should work to make social governance more effective. Workplace safety supervision should be strengthened, and disaster prevention, mitigation, and relief efforts should be bolstered.We should fully apply a holistic approach to national security and advance the Peaceful China Initiative to a higher level.
我们要以铸牢中华民族共同体意识为主线，坚持和完善民族区域自治制度，促进各 民族共同团结奋斗、共同繁荣发展。坚持党的宗教工作基本方针，坚持我国宗教中国化 方向，积极引导宗教与社会主义社会相适应。加强和改进侨务工作，汇聚起海内外中华 儿女同心奋斗、共创辉煌的强大力量。
We should, with a focus on forging a strong sense of community for the Chinese nation, uphold and improve the system of regional ethnic autonomy and encourage all our ethnic groups to strive in unity for common prosperity and development.We should adhere to the Party’s basic policy on religious affairs, follow the principle that religions in China must be Chinese in orientation, and provide active guidance to religions so that they can adapt themselves to socialist society.We should strengthen and improve our work related to Chinese nationals overseas to forge a powerful force for all the sons and daughters of the Chinese nation, both at home and abroad, to work together to make remarkable achievements.
我们要深入贯彻习近平强军思想，贯彻新时代军事战略方针，围绕实现建军一百年 奋斗目标，边斗争、边备战、边建设，完成好党和人民赋予的各项任务。全面加强练兵 备战，创新军事战略指导，大抓实战化军事训练，统筹抓好各方向各领域军事斗争。全 面加强军事治理，巩固拓展国防和军队改革成果，加强重大任务战建备统筹，加快实施 国防发展重大工程。巩固提高一体化国家战略体系和能力，加强国防科技工业能力建设。各级政府要大力支持国防和军队建设，深入开展“双拥”活动，合力谱写军政军民团结 新篇章。
We should fully implement Xi Jinping’s thinking on strengthening the military and the military strategy for the new era. Our armed forces, with a focus on the goals for the centenary of the People’s Liberation Army in 2027, should work to carry out military operations, boost combat preparedness, and enhance military capabilities so as to accomplish the tasks entrusted to them by the Party and the people.The armed forces should intensify military training and preparedness across the board, develop new military strategic guidance, devote greater energy to training under combat conditions, and make well-coordinated efforts to strengthen military work in all directions and domains.We should improve all-around military governance and build on and expand the gains of national defense and military reform. We should see that military operations, capacity building, and combat preparedness are well-coordinated in fulfilling major tasks and speed up the implementation of major defense-related projects.We should consolidate and enhance integration of national strategies and strategic capabilities and step up capacity building in science, technology, and industries related to national defense.We in governments at all levels should give strong support to the development of national defense and the armed forces and conduct extensive activities to promote mutual support between civilian sectors and the military. In doing so, we will open a new chapter of unity between the military and the government and between the military and the people.
我们要全面准确、坚定不移贯彻“一国两制”、“港人治港”、“澳人治澳”、高 度自治的方针，坚持依法治港治澳，维护宪法和基本法确定的特别行政区宪制秩序，落 实“爱国者治港”、“爱国者治澳”原则。支持港澳发展经济、改善民生，保持香港、 澳门长期繁荣稳定。
We should fully, faithfully, and resolutely implement the policy of One Country, Two Systems, under which the people of Hong Kong administer Hong Kong and the people of Macao administer Macao, both with a high degree of autonomy. We should remain committed to law-based governance in Hong Kong and Macao and ensure that constitutional order in the two regions is upheld as stipulated in China’s Constitution and the basic laws of the two regions, and that Hong Kong and Macao are administered by patriots.We should support Hong Kong and Macao in growing their economies and improving the lives of their people and maintain long-term prosperity and stability in the two regions.
我们要坚持贯彻新时代党解决台湾问题的总体方略，坚持一个中国原则和“九二共 识”，坚定反“独”促统，推动两岸关系和平发展，推进祖国和平统一进程。两岸同胞 血脉相连，要促进两岸经济文化交流合作，完善增进台湾同胞福祉的制度和政策，推动 两岸共同弘扬中华文化，同心共创复兴伟业。
We should implement our Party’s overall policy for the new era on resolving the Taiwan question, adhere to the one-China principle and the 1992 Consensus, and take resolute steps to oppose “Taiwan independence” and promote reunification. We should promote the peaceful development of cross-Strait relations and advance the process of China’s peaceful reunification.As we Chinese on both sides of the Taiwan Strait are one family bound by blood, we should advance economic and cultural exchanges and cooperation across the Taiwan Strait and improve the systems and policies that contribute to the wellbeing of our Taiwan compatriots. We should encourage people on both sides of the Strait to jointly promote Chinese culture and advance China’s rejuvenation.
我们要坚定奉行独立自主的和平外交政策，坚定不移走和平发展道路，坚持在和平 共处五项原则基础上同各国发展友好合作，坚定奉行互利共赢的开放战略，始终做世界 和平的建设者、全球发展的贡献者、国际秩序的维护者。中国愿同国际社会一道落实全 球发展倡议、全球安全倡议，弘扬全人类共同价值，携手推动构建人类命运共同体，维护世界和平和地区稳定。
We should stay committed to an independent foreign policy of peace and to peaceful development and pursue friendship and cooperation with other countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence.We should remain firm in pursuing a strategy of opening up for mutual benefit. We should continue working to safeguard world peace, contribute to global development, and uphold the international order.China stands ready to work with the international community to put into action the Global Development Initiative and the Global Security Initiative and promote the shared values of humanity.Let us join hands to promote the building of a human community with a shared future and safeguard world peace and regional stability.
奋斗铸就辉煌，实干赢得未来。我们要更加紧密地团结在以习近平同志为核心的党 中央周围，高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜，以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导，全面贯彻党的二十大精神，砥砺前行，推动经济社会持续健康发展，为全面建设 社会主义现代化国家、全面推进中华民族伟大复兴，为把我国建设成为富强民主文明和 谐美丽的社会主义现代化强国不懈奋斗！
Great achievements can only come from hard work; a bright future can only be secured through solid efforts. Let us rally more closely around the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, hold high the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics, follow the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, and fully implement the guiding principles from the Party’s 20th National Congress. Let us forge ahead with perseverance and resolve, promote sound and sustainable economic and social development, and keep working to build a modern socialist country in all respects. Let us strive to advance national rejuvenation on all fronts and build China into a great modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious, and beautiful.