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Biden Administration Unveils Strict Auto Standards to Speed Electric Shift

[2024年3月22日] 来源:VOA News  整理:Geilien.cn   字号 [] [] []  
资料照片:2023年6月9日,特斯拉电动汽车在加利福尼亚州阿纳海姆的一个充电站充电。Tesla electric vehicles are charged at a charging station in Anaheim, Calif., June 9, 2023. (美联社照片)

NEW YORK — President Joe Biden's administration announced Wednesday revised pollution standards for cars and trucks meant to accelerate the U.S. auto industry's shift to electric to mitigate climate change.
美国总统乔·拜登(Joe Biden)行政当局周三(3月20日)宣布修订了汽车和卡车的污染标准,旨在加速美国汽车行业向电动汽车的转变,以缓解气候变化。

The rules set ambitious emission reductions for 2032 but are moderated somewhat compared with preliminary standards unveiled last April. Following carmaker criticism, the final rules give manufacturers greater flexibility and ease the benchmarks in the first three years.

Those shifts were criticized as a sop to corporations from at least one environmental group, even as the final rule won praise from other leading NGOs focused on climate change.

The final rules — which were described by administration official as "the strongest ever" and would likely be undone if Republican Donald Trump defeats Biden in November — still require a nearly 50% drop in fleet-wide emissions in 2032 compared with 2026 through increased sales of electric vehicles (EVs) and low-emission autos.
最终规则被政府官员称为“有史以来最强大的”,如果共和党人唐纳德·特朗普(Donald Trump)在11月击败拜登,则可能会被撤销。这些规则仍要求通过增加电动汽车(EV)和低排放汽车的销售,到2032年时与2026年相比,所有车辆的排放量将下降近50%。

The rules, which dovetail with other key Biden programs to build more EV charging stations and manufacturing facilities and incentivize EV sales, establish the environment as a significant point of difference in the 2024 presidential election.
这些规则与拜登的其他关键计划相吻合,旨在建设更多的电动汽车充电站和制造设施,并激励电动汽车销售,将环境问题确立为 2024 年总统大选的重要差异点。

Trump has mocked climate change as a problem and cast the transition to EVs as a job-killer that will benefit China at the expense of American workers.

Biden argues that U.S. auto builders need to take the lead in the expanding EV market.

"I brought together American automakers. I brought together American autoworkers," said Biden in a statement. "Together, we've made historic progress."

Alluding to his target set three years ago that 50% of new vehicles in 2030 would be EVs, Biden predicted "we'll meet my goal for 2030 and race forward in the years ahead."

EVs accounted for 7.6% in 2023 sales, up from 5.9% in 2022, according to Cox Automotive.
根据Cox Automotive的数据,电动汽车占 2023 年汽车销量的 7.6%,高于2022年的5.9%。

The original proposal had envisioned the EV share surging to as much as 67% of new vehicle sales by 2032.

Carmakers, which are midway through sweeping, multi-billion-dollar investments to build more EV capacity, criticized the initial standards as overly-stringent. They cited the limited state of charging capacity in the United States that has dampened consumer demand, as well as difficulties in supply of metals and other raw materials for EV batteries.

Following input from the auto industry, organized labor and auto dealerships, Biden administration officials decided to allow manufacturers a "variety of pathways" to reaching the standard, a senior Biden administration official said Tuesday.

This path could include a mix of EVs, conventional but more fuel-efficient engines, and plug-in hybrid vehicles, which have seen a rise in demand of late.

Biden administration officials opted to soften year-to-year emissions improvements in the 2027-2030 period, while maintaining the same target in 2032.

Moderating the targets in these first three years "was the right call," said John Bozzella, president of the Alliance for Automotive Innovation, a Washington lobby representing carmakers.
在头三年中缓和目标“是正确的选择,”代表汽车制造商的华盛顿游说团体汽车创新联盟(Alliance for Automotive Innovation)主席约翰·博泽拉(John Bozzella)说。

"These adjusted EV targets — still a stretch goal — should give the market and supply chains a chance to catch up," said Bozzella, adding that the extra time will allow more EV charging stations to come on-line.
“这些调整后的电动汽车目标--仍然是一个具有长期性的目标--应该给市场和供应链一个迎头赶上的机会,” 博泽拉说。他并补充说,额外的时间将允许更多的电动汽车充电站上线。

The final standards set a fleet-wide target of 85 grams of carbon dioxide in 2032, down from 170 in 2027, according to an administration fact sheet.

Wednesday's initiative won praise from leading environmental groups including the Sierra Club and NRDC, which said the new rules "take us in the right direction," according to a statement from the Natural Resources Defense Council chief Manish Bapna.
根据自然资源保护协会(NRDC)负责人曼尼什·巴普纳(Manish Bapna)的一份声明,周三的倡议赢得了包括塞拉俱乐部(Sierra Club)和自然资源保护协会在内的主要环保组织的赞扬。自然资源保护协会表示,新规则“将我们带到正确的方向”。

But Dan Becker, director of the climate transport campaign at the Center for Biological Diversity, slammed the adjusted rules as "significantly weaker."
但生物多样性中心(Center for Biological Diversity)气候运输运动主任丹·贝克尔(Dan Becker)抨击调整后的规则,称其“明显较弱”。

"The EPA caved to pressure from Big Auto, Big Oil and car dealers and riddled the plan with loopholes big enough to drive a Ford F150 through," Becker said.

"The weaker rule means cars and pickups spew more pollution, oil companies keep socking consumers at the pump, and automakers keep wielding well-practiced delay tactics."